# Empty program

Empty program
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Create the simplest possible program that is still considered "correct."

# Programming Languages

## 360 Assembly

         BR    14                    END

## 8051 Assembly

Continuously loops.

ORG RESET jmp $ ## 8086 Assembly end However, if the program needs to exit with an exit code of zero:  segment .text global _start _start: mov eax, 60 xor edi, edi syscall end ## Ada Works with: GCC version 4.1.2 procedure Empty is begin null; end; ## Agena Actually nothing is valid code, too.   ## Aime The nil input is a valid program.   ## ALGOL 60 'BEGIN' 'END' ## ALGOL 68 ### Brief form ~ ### BOLD form SKIP ## ALGOL W .comment using the <empty statement>; ## AmigaE PROC main()ENDPROC ## AppleScript An empty .scpt file is considered the smallest runnable code, but the following would also be acceptable. return ## Argile The empty string or file are valid and do nothing.   ## ARM Assembly GNU/Linux RaspberryPi example. .text .global _start_start: mov r0, #0 mov r7, #1 svc #0  ## AutoHotkey An empty script would be enough. Adding "#Persistent" makes it persistent. #Persistent ## AutoIt A single comment can be considered a valid program that does nothing. ;nothing ## AWK The empty string (or file) is recognised as valid program that does nothing. The program  1 is the simplest useful program, equivalent to // {print} I.e. match every input-line, and print it. Like the UNIX command 'cat', it prints every line of the files given as arguments, or (if no arguments are given) the standard input. ## Axe Most Axe examples omit the executable name, but it is shown in this example for completeness. :.PRGMNAME: ## BASIC Works with: QBASIC Works with: Quick BASIC Works with: FreeBASIC Works with: uBasic/4tH An empty file is a correct program. It won't be near empty as an executable file, though.   Works with: ZX Spectrum Basic On the ZX Spectrum, we can have a completely empty program with no lines. Here we attempt to run the empty program: RUN 0 OK, 0:1  ### Applesoft BASIC   ## Batch File On Windows XP and older, an empty batch file is syntactically correct and does nothing.   But on Windows 7, an empty .bat file is not recognized and thus a character must exist in it. Some valid characters are : @ % : ## BBC BASIC In BBC BASIC an empty program is syntactically correct.   ## bc An empty file is a valid program. ## Befunge @  The halt command @ is required because code wraps around. An empty file would be an infinite loop. ## Bracmat An empty file is a valid program. However you need to load it, which requires a statement. In a Linux terminal, you could do touch emptybracmat 'get$empty'

In DOS, you can do

touch emptybracmat get$empty If we drop the requirement that the shortest program is stored in a file, we can do bracmat '' (Linux) or bracmat "" (Windows) If two quotes to demarcate an empty string are counted as bigger than a single undemarcated non-empty expression, we can do  bracmat .  The dot is a binary operator. So the input consists of three nodes: the operator and its lhs and rhs, both empty strings in this case. If three nodes is too much, consider a slightly bigger glyph, such as the hyphen, which is a prefix, not a binary operator:  bracmat -  You also can start Bracmat without arguments, in which case it will run in interactive mode. Now press the Enter key. You have just run the shortest valid Bracmat program. ## Brainf*** Empty program Note: this works as all non-instruction characters are considered comments. Alternatively, a zero-byte file also works. ## Brlcad Pressing enter from the mged prompt, just returns another prompt, so I suppose that is the smallest possible program. However, before we can draw anything we at least need to open a database: opendb empty.g y ## C Works with: C89 main(){ return 0;} As of C99 the return type is required, but the return statement is not. Works with: C99 int main() { } This is technically undefined behavior but on 8086 compatible processors 195 corresponds to the ret assembly instruction. const main = 195; ## C# class P{static void Main(){}} ## C++ Works with: g++ version 4.8.1 int main(){} ## Clean module Empty Start world = world Compile the project with No Console or No Return Type to suppress printing of the value of the world. ## Clojure An empty file is the simplest valid Clojure program. ## COBOL Works with: OpenCOBOL version 2.0   ## CoffeeScript   ## Common Lisp () ## Component Pascal BlackBox Component Builder;  MODULE Main;END Main.  ## Computer/zero Assembly The smallest legal program is a single Stop instruction.  STP ## D void main() {} ## Dart main() {} ## dc An empty file is a valid program. ## DCL An empty file is a valid program. ## Delphi See Pascal ## Déjà Vu   Shortest module that works with !import: {} ## E The shortest possible program: This is equivalent to: null ## eC or class EmptyApp : Application{ void Main() { }} ## EchoLisp   ## EDSAC order code The smallest program that will load and run without error. Apart from ZF, the 'stop' order, it consists solely of directives to the loader. T64K [ set load point ]GK [ set base address ]ZF [ stop ]EZPF [ begin at load point ] ## Egel The smallest program contains nothing.   ## EGL General program  package programs; program Empty_program type BasicProgram {} function main() endend  Rich UI handler (but also without 'initialUI = [ ui ], onConstructionFunction = start' it would have been valid.) package ruihandlers; import com.ibm.egl.rui.widgets.Div; handler Empty_program type RUIhandler {initialUI = [ ui ], onConstructionFunction = start} ui Div{}; function start() end end  ## Eiffel A file called root.e: class ROOT create make feature make do endend ## Elena program =[]. ## Elixir   ## Elm  --Language prints the text in " "import Htmlmain = Html.text"empty"  ## Erlang An empty module: -module(empty). An empty Erlang script file (escript): main(_) -> 1. ## ERRE  PROGRAM EMPTYBEGINEND PROGRAM  ## eSQL CREATE COMPUTE MODULE ESQL_Compute CREATE FUNCTION Main() RETURNS BOOLEAN BEGIN RETURN TRUE; END;END MODULE; ## Euphoria   ## F# F# has an interactive mode and a compiled mode. The interactive interpreter will accept an empty file so the shortest valid program is an empty zero-length file with the .fsx extension.   An empty compiled program is: [<EntryPoint>]let main args = 0 ## Factor   If you want to deploy a stand-alone application, that doesn't suffice though. Here's another version. IN: rosetta.empty: main ( -- ) ;MAIN: main ## Falcon > Prints an empty line. >> Prints nothing. ## FALSE   ## Fantom class Main{ public static Void main () {}} ## FBSL An empty string is a valid FBSL script in both uncompiled and compiled form. It won't however produce any visible output on the screen. The minimum implementations for the user to see the result are presented below: Console mode:  #APPTYPE CONSOLE PAUSE  Output:  Press any key to continue...  Graphics mode:  SHOW(ME) ' all FBSL scripts are #APPTYPE GUI on defaultBEGIN EVENTSEND EVENTS  Output: GUI Form Minimum empty Dynamic Assembler block:  DYNASM Foo() RET ; mandatory END DYNASM  Minimum empty Dynamic C block:  DYNC Foo() void main(void) { return; // optional } END DYNC  ## Fish Actually the shortest valid program is a space (not empty file!), which is an infinite loop, though. (It keeps looping around)   An empty program is invalid; the interpreter will give an error. The shortest program that will actually finish is a ;, which will end the program immediately: ; ## Forth   For a Forth script to be used from a shell, you usually want the last command to be BYE in order to exit the interpreter when finished. bye ## Fortran  end ## FreeBASIC A completely empty program compiles and runs fine:   ## friendly interactive shell Empty programs are valid, but are useless.   ## Frink Empty programs are valid.   ## FunL An empty text file is a valid FunL program that does nothing.   ## Futhark Any Futhark program must have a main function. Alternatively, a Futhark library can be an empty file.  fun main(): int = 0  ## FutureBasic Why?  end  ## Gecho Empty programs are valid.   ## Gema An empty program will copy input stream to output stream unchanged.   ## Genyris ## Go package mainfunc main() { } ## Groovy   ## Haskell Standard: Haskell 98 The simplest possible program is a single module using the implicit module header "module Main(main) where", and defining the action main to do nothing: main = return () The simplest possible module other than Main is one which contains no definitions: module X where {} ## Haxe class Program { static function main() { }} Unlike most languages Haxe doesn't have arguments in the main function because it targets different platforms (some which don't support program arguments, eg: Flash or Javascript). You need to use the specific libraries of the platform you are targeting to get those. ## HicEst END ! looks better, but is not really needed ## HQ9+ An empty file is a valid HQ9+ program that does nothing. ## HolyC An empty file is the simplest valid HolyC program and returns 0. ## Huginn main(){} ## i software{} ## Icon and Unicon procedure main() # a null file will compile but generate a run-time error for missing mainend ## IDL end ## Inform 7 X is a room Inform 7 is a language built for making interactive fiction, so a room needs to be defined for the player to start in. ## Intercal PLEASE GIVE UP ## Io ## J '' It returns itself:  '' -: ". ''1 ## Java Works with: Java version 1.5+ public class EmptyApplet extends java.applet.Applet { @Override public void init() { }} public class EmptyMainClass { public static void main(String... args) { }} The "..." basically means "as many of these as the programmer wants." Java will put multiple arguments into an array with the given name. This will work for any method where an array is an argument, but with a twist. A call can be made like this: method(arg0, arg1, arg2, arg3) All of the args will be put into an array in the order they were in the call. Works with: Java version 1.0+ public class EmptyMainClass { public static void main(String[] args) { }} public class EmptyApplet extends java.applet.Applet { public void init() { }} @Override - Indicates that a method declaration is intended to override a method declaration in a superclass. If a method is annotated with this annotation type but does not override a superclass method, compilers are required to generate an error message. It's present from JDK 5.0 (1.5.0) and up. Actually this is not strictly correct. The smallest possible correct program in Java is an empty source file. ## JavaScript The empty file is a valid program. ## Joy . ## Jq The “empty” filter ignores its input and outputs nothing. empty ## Julia Julia accepts an empty file as a program.   Output: $ wc empty_program.jl
0 0 0 empty_program.jl
$julia empty_program.jl$


## K



## KonsolScript

function main() { }

## Kotlin

fun main(a: Array<String>) {}

## Lang5

exit

## Lasso

Lasso will parse any file thrown at it. It will ignore everything except what's inside specific Lasso delimiters. Thus a valid program that did nothing, could be an empty file. Perhaps more correct would be a file that had the specific delimiters and then nothing inside them.

[]
<?lasso  ?>
<?=  ?>

## LC3 Assembly

The only thing you absolutely need is a directive telling the assembler to stop assembling code (which in this case it has not actually started doing).

        .END

## Liberty BASIC

end

## Lilypond

According to the manual, all lilypond programs should contain a version statement expressing the minimum version number. If this is missing then a warning will be emitted.

\version "2.6.12"

An input file should really have a basic structure as follows. The compiler automatically adds some of the structure components if they are not present in the source code. However, explicit definition should be used to prevent the compiler from creating unwanted contexts (which can cause side effects):

\version "2.16.2" \header { } \book {  \score {    \new Staff {      \new Voice {       }    }    \layout {     }  }}

## Lingo

"Program" doesn't really apply to Lingo. A Director projector (exe/app) doesn't have to contain any scripts/code. For scripts, the shortest possible code is:



## Lisp

Most Lisp dialects, including Common Lisp, will accept no text (no forms) as a valid program.



## Logo



or end a standalone script with "bye"

#! /usr/local/bin/logo bye

## LSE64

As with Forth, an empty file is the shortest program. To exit the interpreter at the end of a loaded file:

bye


## Lua



## M4



## Maple



## Mathematica / Wolfram Language



## MATLAB

 function [varargout] = emptyprogram(varargin)

## ML/I



## MMIX

	LOC	#100Main	TRAP	0,Halt,0	// main (argc, argv) {}

## Modula-2

MODULE Main; BEGINEND Main.

## Modula-3

MODULE Main; BEGINEND Main.

## MUMPS

The empty file is a valid program.

## N/t/roff



An empty input file is valid, but if the output is Postscript or PDF, most PDF viewers will suffer. However, that's the PDF viewer's fault; the typesetter is still okay with an empty file. If one wants grace for the PDF viewers, import a macro that, at the very least, defines some proper margins and pagination as in the following code:

Works with: GNU TROFF version 1.22.2
.mso me.tmac

## Nemerle

Compiles with warnings:

null

Compiles without warnings (so, more correct):

module Program{    Main() : void    {    }}

## NetRexx

The following two samples both generate valid programs.

This minimal example requires that the file be named to match the class:

class empty

This example will generate its class based on the file name:

method main(args = String[]) static

## NewLISP

;

## Nit

Although a Nit module (file) usually include a module declaration, an empty module is a valid Nit program.

## Objeck

bundle Default {  class Empty {    function : Main(args : String[]) ~ Nil {    }}

## Objective-C

Works with: gcc version 4.0.1
int main(int argc, const char **argv) {    return 0;}

The minimal empty Cocoa/OpenStep application, useful as life-support for many examples given at RosettaCode, is

#import <Cocoa/Cocoa.h> int main( int argc, const char *argv[] ){  @autoreleasepool {    [NSApplication sharedApplication];  }  return 0;}

## OCaml

Works with: Ocaml version 3.09
;;

Actually, the smallest possible correct program in OCaml is an empty source file.

## Octave

An empty text file can be a valid empty program, but since Octave has the concept of "function file" (a file containing a single function; the file is automatically loaded when a function with the same name of the file, save for the extension, is called, and the first function present in the file is used), the name of the empty file matters. E.g. calling an empty file as isempty.m makes unusable the builtin isempty function.

## Oforth

An empty file is a valid oforth file

oforth empty.of

Without file, interpreter can just evaluate bye :

oforth --P"bye"

## OOC

The Compiler will accept an empty file:



## OpenLisp

We can run OpenLisp in shell mode with an empty program as follows. This is for the Linux version of OpenLisp.

 #!/openlisp/uxlisp -shell()

## OxygenBasic

The smallest possible program is a single space character:



## Oz

### Accepted by compiler

The simplest 'program' that can be compiled is a file which contains a single expression.

unit

Such a 'program' cannot be executed, though.

### Standalone

The simplest standalone program is a root functor that does not define anything. ("Functors" are first-class modules.)

functordefine   skipend

## PARI/GP



## Pascal

program ProgramName; beginend.

The first line is not necessary in modern Pascal dialects. With today's most compilers, the empty program is just:

begin end.

## Perl

The empty program is valid and does nothing but return a successful exit code:



Of course, this then requires you to specify the interpreter on the command line (i.e. perl empty.pl). So slightly more correct as a stand-alone program, is:

#!/usr/bin/perl

The smallest possible Perl one-liner is perl -e0.

## Perl 6

The empty program is valid and does nothing but return a successful exit code:



It is also possible to just specify that the program is written in Perl6:

use v6;

or even:

v6;

## Phix

An empty file is a valid program. When compiled however, it is far from empty as it contains most of the VM and a full run-time diagnostics kit (together about 202K).

## PHP

An empty text file is a correct PHP program that does nothing.

## PicoLisp

(de foo ())

## Pike

int main(){}

## PIR

The :main pragma indicates that a subroutine is the program's entry point. However, if a subroutine is the first (or only, which would also have the effect of making it the first) routine in the program, Parrot will use that. So we may comfortably omit it in this case.

.sub empty_program.end

## PL/I

s: proc options (main);end;

## PL/SQL

BEGIN    NULL;END;

## Pop11

Pop11 has two compilers, incremental and batch compiler. For the incremental compiler one can use just empty program text (empty file), or a file containing nothing but a comment, e.g.

;;; This is a valid Pop11 program that does absolutely nothing.

The batch compiler generates an executable which starts at a given entry point, so one should provide an empty function. If one wants program that works the same both with incremental compiler and batch compiler the following may be useful:

compile_mode :pop11 +strict;define entry_point();enddefine; #_TERMIN_IF DEF POPC_COMPILINGentry_point();

Here the batch compiler will stop reading source before call to entry_point while incremental compiler will execute the call, ensuring that in both cases execution will start from the function entry_point.

## PostScript

An empty file is a valid PostScript program that does nothing.

Following good programming practice, however, and to ensure that a PostScript printer will interpret a file correctly, one should make the first 4 characters of the file be

%!PS

If a particular version of the PS interpreter is needed, this would be included right there:

%!PS-2.0% ...or...%!PS-3.0% etc

## PowerShell

An empty script block. A script block is a nameless (lamda) function.

 &{}
Output:

## ProDOS

This is an acceptable program:

IGNORELINE

But also you could include a delimiter character recognized by the compiler/interpreter:

;

## PSQL

EXECUTE BLOCKASBEGINEND

## PureBasic

An empty file is a correct PureBasic program that does nothing.



## Python

An empty text file is a correct Python program that does nothing.

An empty file named __init__.py even has a structural purpose in Python of declaring that a directory is a Package.

## QUACKASM

1QUIT

## R

An empty text file is a valid empty program

## Racket

The following shows an empty program in Racket's default language. Other Racket languages may impose different conditions on the empty program.

 #lang racket

## Raven

An empty text file is an empty program.

## REBOL

The header section is mandatory if you want it to be recognized as a REBOL program. It doesn't have to be filled in though:

rebol []

## Retro

An empty file is the smallest valid program.



To save an application doing nothing, you need to do a bit more work though:

&bye is boot

## REXX

An empty (or blank) file is a valid REXX program.

Some REXX implementations require a special comment   [(1st word in the comment
must be   REXX   (in upper/lower/mixed) case]   to distinguish from other types of
scripting languages, but a null program (or a program with only blanks in it)   in those
other scripting languages are also considered an empty program.

### version 1

This program can be empty (no characters),   or a program with (only) one or more blanks.



### version 2

REXX on MVS/TSO requires REXX to be within a REXX comment that begins on the first line:

/*REXX*/

## Rhope

Works with: Rhope version alpha 1
Main(0,0)
|: :|


## Ring



## Ruby

An empty file is a valid Ruby program. However, in order to make it runnable on *nix systems, a shebang line is necessary:

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

## Run BASIC

end  ' actually a blank is ok

## Rust

fn main(){}

## Scala

object emptyProgram extends App {}

## Scheme



## Scilab





## UNIX Shell

Works with: Bourne Shell
#!/bin/sh
Works with: Bourne Again SHell
#!/bin/bash
Works with: Korn SHell
#!/bin/ksh

## Unlambda

i


(See how i plays so many roles in unlambda?)

## Ursa

The Cygnus/X Ursa interpreter has no problems with empty files, so the shortest program is an empty file.



## VBScript

An empty .vbs file is considered the smallest runnable code, but the following (a single apostrophe as comment marker) would also be acceptable (along with other non-executing instructions like option explicit.)

'

## Verbexx

An empty file is the smallest valid script, but running it does nothing.



## VHDL

Compiled and simulated by Modelsim:

entity dummy isend; architecture empty of dummy isbeginend;

## Vim Script

An empty file is a valid program.

## VBA

Same as Visual Basic, VB6, etc.

Sub Demo()End Sub

## Visual Basic

Works with: VB6

Sub Main()End Sub

## Visual Basic .NET

Works with: Visual Basic .NET version 2005
Module General    Sub Main()    End SubEnd Module

## WDTE

An empty 'file' is a valid WDTE script. That being said, WDTE has no inherent concept of scripts being in files, so a zero-length input may be a better description.

## X86 Assembly

Works with: NASM version Linux
section .text	global _start 	_start:		mov eax, 1		int 0x80		ret
Works with: MASM
.386.model flat, stdcalloption casemap:none .codestart:retend start

## XPL0

An empty file compiles and builds an EXE file with a single RET instruction, but of course does nothing when executed.

## XQuery

.

The dot selects the current context node and returns it unchanged.

## XSLT

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?><xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" version="1.0">   <!-- code goes here --></xsl:stylesheet>

Add other namespaces to the stylesheet attributes (like xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format") if you use them.

Since XSLT is XML, and transform is a synonym for stylesheet, the example above can be minified to:

<transform xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" version="1.0"/>

This stylesheet echoes the text content of an XML file. The shortest stylesheet without any output would be

<transform xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" version="1.0">   <template match="/" /></transform>

## xTalk

Works with: HyperCard
on startup

end startup


## XUL

 <?xml version="1.0"?>

## Yorick

An empty file is valid and does nothing.

## Z80 Assembly

ret


## zkl

An empty file/string is valid.

c:=Compiler.Compiler.compileText("");c() //--> Class(RootClass#)

See BASIC

# Markup Languages

## HTML

HTML 5, section 12.1.2.4 Optional tags, allows to omit html, head and body tags. The implicit body element can be empty, but the implicit head element must contain a title element, says section 4.2.1 The head element. There seems no rule against an empty title. Therefore, the shortest correct HTML document is:

<!DOCTYPE html><title></title>

The shortest correct XHTML document is:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><title /></head><body /></html>

## LaTeX

\documentclass{article}\begin{document}\end{document}

## Plain TeX

\bye