Case-sensitivity of identifiers

From Rosetta Code
Task
Case-sensitivity of identifiers
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Three dogs (Are there three dogs or one dog?) is a code snippet used to illustrate the lettercase sensitivity of the programming language. For a case-sensitive language, the identifiers dog, Dog and DOG are all different and we should get the output:

The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

For a language that is lettercase insensitive, we get the following output:

There is just one dog named Bernie.


Related task



Ada[edit]

case insensitive

with Ada.Text_IO;
procedure Dogs is
Dog : String := "Bernie";
begin
Ada.Text_IO.Put_Line ("There is just one dog named " & DOG);
end Dogs;

Output:

There is just one dog named Bernie

Agena[edit]

Translation of Algol W. Agena is case sensitive, as this example demonstrates. Tested with Agena 2.9.5 Win32

scope
local dog := "Benjamin";
scope
local Dog := "Samba";
scope
local DOG := "Bernie";
if DOG <> Dog or DOG <> dog
then print( "The three dogs are named: " & dog & ", " & Dog & " and " & DOG )
else print( "There is just one dog named: " & DOG )
fi
epocs
epocs
epocs
Output:
The three dogs are named: Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

Aime[edit]

text dog, Dog, DOG;
 
dog = "Benjamin";
Dog = "Samba";
DOG = "Bernie";
 
o_form("The three dogs are named ~, ~ and ~.\n", dog, Dog, DOG);

ALGOL 68[edit]

Works with: ALGOL 68 version Revision 1.
Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release algol68g-2.6.

A joke code entry... :-) ¢ but the code does actually work!

File: Case-sensitivity_of_identifiers.a68
#!/usr/bin/a68g --script #
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*- #
 
STRING dog = "Benjamin";
OP D = (INT og)STRING: "Samba";
OP DOG = (INT gy)STRING: "Bernie";
INT og=~, gy=~;
 
main:(
printf(($"The three dogs are named "g", "g" and "g"."l$, dog, Dog, DOGgy));
0
)
Output:
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

Alternative version.

Works with: Rutgers_ALGOL_68 version Any - Tested with the DOS version
Translation of: Algol W

Most recent implementations of Algol 68 use "upper stropping", the "keywords" are in upper case and the identifiers are an lower case. This precludes use of e.g. Dog or DOG as the name of a variable or constant.
However, depending on the "stropping" convention used and the implementation, Algol 68 can be case-sensitive. Rutgers ALGOL 68 uses quote stropping and allows both upper and lower case in identifiers and bold words. The standard bold words must be in lower-case.

'begin'
'string' dog = "Benjamin";
'begin'
'string' Dog = "Samba";
'begin'
'string' DOG = "Bernie";
'if' DOG /= Dog 'or' DOG /= dog
'then' print( ( "The three dogs are named: ", dog, ", ", Dog, " and ", DOG ) )
'else' print( ( "There is just one dog named: ", DOG ) )
'fi'
'end'
'end'
'end'
Output:
The three dogs are named: Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

ALGOL W[edit]

Algol W identifiers are not case-sensitive but variable names in inner blocks can be the same as those in outer blocks...

begin
string(8) dog;
dog := "Benjamin";
begin
string(8) Dog;
Dog := "Samba";
begin
string(8) DOG;
DOG := "Bernie";
if DOG not = Dog
or DOG not = dog
then write( "The three dogs are named: ", dog, ", ", Dog, " and ", DOG )
else write( "There is just one dog named: ", DOG )
end
end
end.
Output:
There is just one dog named: Bernie  

APL[edit]

      DOG←'Benjamin'
Dog←'Samba'
dog←'Bernie'
'The three dogs are named ',DOG,', ',Dog,', and ',dog
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie

AutoHotkey[edit]

dog := "Benjamin"
Dog := "Samba"
DOG := "Bernie"
MsgBox There is just one dog named %dOG%

AWK[edit]

BEGIN {
dog = "Benjamin"
Dog = "Samba"
DOG = "Bernie"
printf "The three dogs are named %s, %s and %s.\n", dog, Dog, DOG
}

The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

Batch File[edit]

 
@echo off
 
set dog=Benjamin
set Dog=Samba
set DOG=Bernie
 
echo There is just one dog named %dog%.
pause>nul
 
Output:
There is just one dog named Bernie.

BBC BASIC[edit]

      dog$ = "Benjamin"
Dog$ = "Samba"
DOG$ = "Bernie"
PRINT "The three dogs are " dog$ ", " Dog$ " and " DOG$ "."

Output:

The three dogs are Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

bc[edit]

The only variables are 'a' through 'z'. They can only hold numbers, not strings. Some implementations allow longer names like 'dog', but only with lowercase letters. A name like 'Dog' or 'DOG' is a syntax error.

obase = 16
ibase = 16
 
/*
* Store the hexadecimal number 'BE27A312'
* in the variable 'd'.
*/
d = BE27A312
"There is just one dog named "; d
quit

There is just one dog named BE27A312

Bracmat[edit]

( Benjamin:?dog
& Samba:?Dog
& Bernie:?DOG
& out$("There are three dogs:" !dog !Dog and !DOG)
);

Output:

There are three dogs: Benjamin Samba and Bernie

Brlcad[edit]

The three dogs are drawn as spheres in this simple example:

 
opendb dogs.g y # Create a database to hold our dogs
units ft # The dogs are measured in feet
in dog.s sph 0 0 0 1 # Benjie is a little Scottie dog
in Dog.s sph 4 0 0 3 # Samba is a Labrador
in DOG.s sph 13 0 0 5 # Bernie is massive. He is a New Foundland
echo The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

C[edit]

C is case sensitive; if it would be case insensitive, an error about redefinition of a variable would be raised.

#include <stdio.h>
 
static const char *dog = "Benjamin";
static const char *Dog = "Samba";
static const char *DOG = "Bernie";
 
int main()
{
printf("The three dogs are named %s, %s and %s.\n", dog, Dog, DOG);
return 0;
}

C++[edit]

C++ is case-sensitive.

#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;
 
int main() {
string dog = "Benjamin", Dog = "Samba", DOG = "Bernie";
 
cout << "The three dogs are named " << dog << ", " << Dog << ", and " << DOG << endl;
}
Output:
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie

C#[edit]

C# is case sensitive

 
using System;
 
class Program
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{
string dog = "Benjamin";
string Dog = "Samba";
string DOG = "Bernie";
Console.WriteLine(string.Format("The three dogs are named {0}, {1}, and {2}.", dog, Dog, DOG));
}
}

Clojure[edit]

user=> (let [dog "Benjamin" Dog "Samba" DOG "Bernie"] (format "The three dogs are named %s, %s and %s." dog Dog DOG))
"The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie."

COBOL[edit]

* Case sensitivity of identifiers
*>* Commented-out lines in the working storage
*>* are considered as invalid redefinitions
*>* of ''dog'' that can only be ambiguously
*>* referenced in the procedure body.
 
IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. case-sensitivity.
DATA DIVISION.
WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
*>* 01 dog PICTURE X(8) VALUE IS "Benjamin".
*>* 01 Dog PICTURE X(5) VALUE IS "Samba".
01 DOG PICTURE X(6) VALUE IS "Bernie".
PROCEDURE DIVISION.
DISPLAY
*>* "The three dogs are named "
*>* dog ", " Dog " and " DOG "."
"There is just one dog named " DOG "."
END-DISPLAY
STOP RUN.
END PROGRAM case-sensitivity.

CoffeeScript[edit]

 
dog="Benjamin"
Dog = "Samba"
DOG = "Bernie"
console.log "The three dogs are names #{dog}, #{Dog}, and #{DOG}."
 

output

 
> coffee foo.coffee
The three dogs are names Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie.
 

Common Lisp[edit]

CL-USER> (let* ((dog "Benjamin") (Dog "Samba") (DOG "Bernie"))
(format nil "There is just one dog named ~a." dog))
; in: LAMBDA NIL
; (LET* ((DOG "Benjamin") (DOG "Samba") (DOG "Bernie"))
; (FORMAT NIL "There is just one dog named ~a." DOG))
;
; caught STYLE-WARNING:
; The variable DOG is defined but never used.
;
; caught STYLE-WARNING:
; The variable DOG is defined but never used.
;
; compilation unit finished
; caught 2 STYLE-WARNING conditions
"There is just one dog named Bernie."

These are the style warnings from SBCL. Other implementations of Common Lisp might give different warnings.

D[edit]

import std.stdio;
 
void main() {
string dog = "Benjamin";
// identifiers that start with capital letters are type names
string Dog = "Samba";
string DOG = "Bernie";
writefln("There are three dogs named ",
dog, ", ", Dog, ", and ", DOG, "'");
}

Output:

There are three dogs named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie'

dc[edit]

A register name has only one character, so this example uses 'd' and 'D'.

[Benjamin]sd
[Samba]sD
[The two dogs are named ]P ldP [ and ]P lDP [.
]P
Output:
The two dogs are named Benjamin and Samba.

Delphi[edit]

Delphi is case insensitive.

program CaseSensitiveIdentifiers;
 
{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
 
var
dog: string;
begin
dog := 'Benjamin';
Dog := 'Samba';
DOG := 'Bernie';
Writeln('There is just one dog named ' + dog);
end.

Output:

There is just one dog named Bernie

Déjà Vu[edit]

local :dog "Benjamin"
local :Dog "Samba"
local :DOG "Bernie"
 
!print( "There are three dogs named " dog ", " Dog " and " DOG "." )
Output:
There are three dogs named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

DWScript[edit]

 
var dog : String;
 
dog := 'Benjamin';
Dog := 'Samba';
DOG := 'Bernie';
 
PrintLn('There is just one dog named ' + dog);

Output:

There is just one dog named Bernie

EchoLisp[edit]

 
(define dog "Benjamin")
(define Dog "Samba")
(define DOG "Bernie")
 
(printf "The three dogs are named %a, %a and %a. " dog Dog DOG)
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.
 

Elena[edit]

In ELENA identifiers are case sensitive.

import extensions.
 
program =
[
var dog := "Benjamin".
var Dog := "Samba".
var DOG := "Bernie".
console printLineFormatted("The three dogs are named {0}, {1} and {2}", dog, Dog, DOG).
].
Output:
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

Elixir[edit]

While Elixir's identifiers are case-sensitive, they generally must start with a lowercase letter. Capitalized identifiers are reserved for modules.

dog = "Benjamin"
doG = "Samba"
dOG = "Bernie"
IO.puts "The three dogs are named #{dog}, #{doG} and #{dOG}."
Output:
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

Erlang[edit]

Erlang variables are case sensitive but must start with an uppercase letter.

 
-module( case_sensitivity_of_identifiers ).
 
-export( [task/0] ).
 
task() ->
catch dog = "Benjamin", % Function will crash without catch
Dog = "Samba",
DOG = "Bernie",
io:fwrite( "The three dogs are named ~s, ~s and ~s~n", [dog, Dog, DOG] ).
 
Output:
4> case_sensitivity_of_identifiers:task().
The three dogs are named dog, Samba and Bernie

Euphoria[edit]

Works with: Euphoria version 4.0.0
-- These variables are all different
sequence dog = "Benjamin"
sequence Dog = "Samba"
sequence DOG = "Bernie"
printf( 1, "The three dogs are named %s, %s and %s\n", {dog, Dog, DOG} )

Factor[edit]

Factor identifiers are case-sensitive.

USING: formatting locals ;
IN: scratchpad
[let
"Benjamin" :> dog
"Samba"  :> Dog
"Bernie"  :> DOG
{ dog Dog DOG } "There are three dogs named %s, %s, and %s." vprintf
]
Output:
There are three dogs named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie.

Forth[edit]

: DOG ." Benjamin" ;
: Dog ." Samba" ;
: dog ." Bernie" ;
: HOWMANYDOGS ." There is just one dog named " DOG ;
HOWMANYDOGS
Output:
There is just one dog named Bernie

Fortran[edit]

Works with: Fortran version 90 and later

Fortran is case insensitive, and so the three "dog" variants name the same variable - which therefore is multiply declared and will likely evoke a compiler complaint.

program Example
implicit none
 
character(8) :: dog, Dog, DOG
 
dog = "Benjamin"
Dog = "Samba"
DOG = "Bernie"
 
if (dog == DOG) then
write(*,*) "There is just one dog named ", dog
else
write(*,*) "The three dogs are named ", dog, Dog, " and ", DOG
end if
 
end program Example

Output:

 There is just one dog named Bernie

FreeBASIC[edit]

' FB 1.05.0 Win64
 
' FreeBASIC is case-insensitive
Dim dog As String
dog = "Benjamin"
Dog = "Samba"
DOG = "Bernie"
Print "There is just one dog, named "; dog
Sleep
Output:
There is just one dog, named Bernie

Frink[edit]

Frink is case-sensitive.

dog = "Benjamin"
Dog = "Samba"
DOG = "Bernie"
println["There are three dogs named $dog, $Dog and $DOG"]

F#[edit]

F# is case-sensitive.

let dog = "Benjamin"
let Dog = "Samba"
let DOG = "Bernie"
printfn "There are three dogs named %s, %s and %s" dog Dog DOG

Gambas[edit]

Click this link to run this code

Gambas in case insensitive

Public Sub Main()
Dim dog As String
 
Dog = "Benjamin"
DOG = "Samba"
dog = "Bernie"
Print "There is just one dog, named "; dog
 
End

Output:

There is just one dog, named Bernie

GAP[edit]

# GAP is case sensitive
ThreeDogs := function()
local dog, Dog, DOG;
dog := "Benjamin";
Dog := "Samba";
DOG := "Bernie";
if dog = DOG then
Print("There is just one dog named ", dog, "\n");
else
Print("The three dogs are named ", dog, ", ", Dog, " and ", DOG, "\n");
fi;
end;
 
ThreeDogs();
# The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

Go[edit]

Go is case sensitive. Further, visibility depends on case. See the Go entry under the Scope modifiers task.

package dogs
 
import "fmt"
 
// Three variables, three different names.
// (It wouldn't compile if the compiler saw the variable names as the same.)
var dog = "Salt"
var Dog = "Pepper"
var DOG = "Mustard"
 
func PackageSees() map[*string]int {
// Print dogs visible from here.
fmt.Println("Package sees:", dog, Dog, DOG)
// Return addresses of the variables visible from here.
// The point of putting them in a map is that maps store only
// unique keys, so it will end up with three items only if
// the variables really represent different places in memory.
return map[*string]int{&dog: 1, &Dog: 1, &DOG: 1}
}
package main
 
import (
. "dogs"
"fmt"
)
 
func main() {
// with the dogs package imported, there are three dogs.
d := PackageSees()
fmt.Println("There are", len(d), "dogs.\n")
 
// Declaration of new variable dog. It lives in this package, main.
dog := "Benjamin"
d = PackageSees()
fmt.Println("Main sees: ", dog, Dog, DOG)
// Four dogs now. two of the three visible from here are the
// the same as ones in the dogs package.
d[&dog] = 1
d[&Dog] = 1
d[&DOG] = 1
fmt.Println("There are", len(d), "dogs.\n")
 
// Not a declaration, just an assigment. This assigns a new value to
// the variable Dog declared in the package. Dog is visible because
// it begins with an upper case letter.
Dog = "Samba"
// same four dogs, same three visible, one just has a new name.
d = PackageSees()
fmt.Println("Main sees: ", dog, Dog, DOG)
d[&dog] = 1
d[&Dog] = 1
d[&DOG] = 1
fmt.Println("There are", len(d), "dogs.\n")
 
// Of course you can still declare a variable if you want to. This
// declares a new variable, shadowing DOG in the package and rendering
// it inaccessable even though it begins with an upper case letter.
var DOG = "Bernie"
// five dogs now. three visible from here.
d = PackageSees()
fmt.Println("Main sees: ", dog, Dog, DOG)
d[&dog] = 1
d[&Dog] = 1
d[&DOG] = 1
fmt.Println("There are", len(d), "dogs.")
}
Output:
Package sees: Salt Pepper Mustard
There are 3 dogs.

Package sees: Salt Pepper Mustard
Main sees:    Benjamin Pepper Mustard
There are 4 dogs.

Package sees: Salt Samba Mustard
Main sees:    Benjamin Samba Mustard
There are 4 dogs.

Package sees: Salt Samba Mustard
Main sees:    Benjamin Samba Bernie
There are 5 dogs.

Groovy[edit]

Solution:

def dog = "Benjamin", Dog = "Samba", DOG = "Bernie"
println (dog == DOG ? "There is one dog named ${dog}" : "There are three dogs named ${dog}, ${Dog} and ${DOG}.")

Output:

There are three dogs named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

Haskell[edit]

Identifiers are case sensitive in Haskell, but must start with a lower case letter.

import Text.Printf
 
main = printf "The three dogs are named %s, %s and %s.\n" dog dOG dOg
where dog = "Benjamin"
dOG = "Samba"
dOg = "Bernie"

Icon and Unicon[edit]

The program below demonstrates the three dog task. All variants of Icon/Unicon have case sensitive variable names. But if one wasn't this would find it.

procedure main()
 
dog := "Benjamin"
Dog := "Samba"
DOG := "Bernie"
 
if dog == DOG then
write("There is just one dog named ", dog,".")
else
write("The three dogs are named ", dog, ", ", Dog, " and ", DOG, ".")
 
end

J[edit]

   NB. These variables are all different
dog=: 'Benjamin'
Dog=: 'Samba'
DOG=: 'Bernie'
'The three dogs are named ',dog,', ',Dog,', and ',DOG
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie

Java[edit]

String dog = "Benjamin";
String Dog = "Samba"; //in general, identifiers that start with capital letters are class names
String DOG = "Bernie"; //in general, identifiers in all caps are constants
//the conventions listed in comments here are not enforced by the language
System.out.println("There are three dogs named " + dog + ", " + Dog + ", and " + DOG + "'");

JavaScript[edit]

Javascript is case sensitive.

var dog = "Benjamin";
var Dog = "Samba";
var DOG = "Bernie";
document.write("The three dogs are named " + dog + ", " + Dog + ", and " + DOG + ".");

jq[edit]

jq identifiers are case-sensitive.

Function parameters:

def task(dog; Dog; DOG):
"The three dogs are named \(dog), \(Dog), and \(DOG)." ;
 
task("Benjamin"; "Samba"; "Bernie")
Output:
$ jq -n -f Case-sensitivity.jq
"The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie."

Variable names:

"Benjamin" as $dog | "Samba" as $Dog | "Bernie" as $DOG
| "The three dogs are named \($dog), \($Dog), and \($DOG)."
Output:

As above.

Julia[edit]

Variable names are case sensitive.

 
dog = "Benjamin"
Dog = "Samba"
DOG = "Bernie"
 
if is(dog, Dog)
println("There is only one dog, ", DOG)
else
println("The three dogs are: ", dog, ", ", Dog, " and ", DOG)
end
 
Output:
The three dogs are:  Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

Conventionally, variable names should be all lower case. Type and Macro names should be capitalized.

K[edit]

 
dog: "Benjamin"
Dog: "Samba"
DOG: "Bernie"
"There are three dogs named ",dog,", ",Dog," and ",DOG
"There are three dogs named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie"
 

Kotlin[edit]

Kotlin is case-sensitive though (as in Java) the convention is for local variable names to begin with a lower case letter. The second and third identifiers would therefore be unlikely to be used in practice.

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val dog = "Benjamin"
val Dog = "Samba"
val DOG = "Bernie"
println("The three dogs are named $dog, $Dog and $DOG")
}
Output:
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

Lasso[edit]

Lasso is not case sensitive for names

 
local(dog = 'Benjamin')
local(Dog = 'Samba')
local(DOG = 'Bernie')
 
stdoutnl('There is just one dog named ' + #dog)
 

Output:

There is just one dog named Bernie

Same with string comparisons. (Lasso maps can only contain unique keys)

 
local(dogs = map(
'dog' = 'Benjamin',
'Dog' = 'Samba',
'DOG' = 'Bernie'
))
stdoutnl(#dogs -> size)

Output:

1

To get case sensitivity we need to use bytes

 
local(dogs = map(
bytes('dog') = 'Benjamin',
bytes('Dog') = 'Samba',
bytes('DOG') = 'Bernie'
))
 
stdoutnl(#dogs -> size)
 
stdoutnl(#dogs -> find(bytes('Dog')))

Output:

3
Samba 

Liberty BASIC[edit]

NB the IDE warns you that there are similar variables named dog$, Dog$ & DOG$

 
dog$ = "Benjamin"
Dog$ = "Samba"
DOG$ = "Bernie"
print "The three dogs are "; dog$; ", "; Dog$; " and "; DOG$; "."
 
end
 

The three dogs are Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

Lua[edit]

dog = "Benjamin"
Dog = "Samba"
DOG = "Bernie"
 
print( "There are three dogs named "..dog..", "..Dog.." and "..DOG.."." )
There are three dogs named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

Maple[edit]

> dog, Dog, DOG := "Benjamin", "Samba", "Bernie":
> if nops( { dog, Dog, DOG } ) = 3 then
> printf( "There are three dogs named %s, %s and %s.\n", dog, Dog, DOG )
> elif nops( { dog, Dog, DOG } ) = 2 then
> printf( "WTF? There are two dogs named %s and %s.\n", op( { dog, Dog, DOG } ) )
> else
> printf( "There is one dog named %s.\n", dog )
> end if:
There are three dogs named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

Mathematica / Wolfram Language[edit]

dog = "Benjamin"; Dog = "Samba"; DOG = "Bernie";
"The three dogs are named "<> dog <>", "<> Dog <>" and "<> DOG
 
-> "The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie"

MATLAB / Octave[edit]

  dog = 'Benjamin';
Dog = 'Samba';
DOG = 'Bernie';
 
printf('There are three dogs %s, %s, %s.\n',dog, Dog, DOG);

Output

  There are three dogs Benjamin, Samba, Bernie.  

Maxima[edit]

/* Maxima is case sensitive */
a: 1$
A: 2$
 
is(a = A);
false

Modula-2[edit]

MODULE  dog;
 
IMPORT InOut;
 
TYPE String = ARRAY [0..31] OF CHAR;
 
VAR dog, Dog, DOG : String;
 
(* No compiler error, so the rest is simple *)
 
BEGIN
InOut.WriteString ("Three happy dogs.");
InOut.WriteLn
END dog.

Nemerle[edit]

def dog = "Benjamin";
def Dog = "Samba";
def DOG = "Bernie";
WriteLine($"The three dogs are named $dog, $Dog, and $DOG");

NESL[edit]

NESL is completely case-insensitive.

dog = "Benjamin";
Dog = "Samba";
DOG = "Bernie";
"There is just one dog, named " ++ dog;
Output:
it = "There is just one dog, named Bernie" : [char]

NetRexx[edit]

NetRexx is not case sensitive:

/* NetRexx */
options replace format comments java crossref symbols nobinary
 
dog = "Benjamin";
Dog = "Samba";
DOG = "Bernie";
 
if dog == Dog & Dog == DOG & dog == DOG then do
say 'There is just one dog named' dog'.'
end
else do
say 'The three dogs are named' dog',' Dog 'and' DOG'.'
end
 
return
 

Output:

There is just one dog named Bernie.

Nim[edit]

var dog = "Benjamin"
Dog = "Samba"
DOG = "Bernie"
echo("There is just one dog named " & doG)

Oberon-2[edit]

Works with: oo2c Version 2
 
MODULE CaseSensitivity;
IMPORT
Out;
VAR
dog, Dog, DOG: STRING;
BEGIN
dog := "Benjamin";
Dog := "Samba";
DOG := "Bernie";
Out.Object("The three dogs are named " + dog + ", " + Dog + " and " + DOG);
Out.Ln
END CaseSensitivity.
 
Output:
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

Objeck[edit]

Objeck is case sensitive

class Program {
function : Main(args : String[]) ~ Nil {
dog := "Benjamin";
Dog := "Samba";
DOG := "Bernie";
"The three dogs are named {$dog}, {$Dog}, and {$DOG}."->PrintLine();
}
}

OCaml[edit]

Identifiers in OCaml are lettercase sensitive, but the first letter has to be lowercase.

let () =
let dog = "Benjamin" in
let dOG = "Samba" in
let dOg = "Bernie" in
Printf.printf "The three dogs are named %s, %s and %s.\n" dog dOG dOg


Oforth[edit]

Oforth is case-sensitive.

: threeDogs
| dog Dog DOG |
 
"Benjamin" ->dog
"Samba" ->Dog
"Bernie" ->DOG
 
System.Out "The three dogs are named " << dog << ", " << Dog << " and " << DOG << "." << cr ;

PARI/GP[edit]

dog="Benjamin";
Dog="Samba";
DOG="Bernie";
printf("The three dogs are named %s, %s, and %s.", dog, Dog, DOG)

Pascal[edit]

See Delphi

Perl[edit]

# These variables are all different
$dog='Benjamin';
$Dog='Samba';
$DOG='Bernie';
print "The three dogs are named $dog, $Dog, and $DOG \n"

Perl 6[edit]

my $dog = 'Benjamin';
my $Dog = 'Samba';
my $DOG = 'Bernie';
say "The three dogs are named $dog, $Dog, and $DOG."

The only place that Perl�pays any attention to the case of identifiers is that, for certain error messages, it will guess that an identifier starting lowercase is probably a function name, while one starting uppercase is probably a type or constant name. But this case distinction is merely a convention in Perl, not mandatory:

constant dog = 'Benjamin';
sub Dog() { 'Samba' }
my &DOG = { 'Bernie' }
say "The three dogs are named {dog}, {Dog}, and {DOG}."

Phix[edit]

Phix is case sensitive

 
sequence dog = "Benjamin"
sequence Dog = "Samba"
sequence DOG = "Bernie"
printf( 1, "The three dogs are named %s, %s and %s\n", {dog, Dog, DOG} )
 
Output:
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie


PicoLisp[edit]

(let (dog "Benjamin"  Dog "Samba"  DOG "Bernie")
(prinl "The three dogs are named " dog ", " Dog " and " DOG) )

Output:

The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

PL/I[edit]

*process or(!) source xref attributes macro options;
/*********************************************************************
* Program to show that PL/I is case-insensitive
* 28.05.2013 Walter Pachl
*********************************************************************/

case: proc options(main);
Dcl dog Char(20) Var;
dog = "Benjamin";
Dog = "Samba";
DOG = "Bernie";
Put Edit(dog,Dog,DOG)(Skip,3(a,x(1)));
End;

Output

Bernie Bernie Berni

PowerShell[edit]

PowerShell is not case sensitive.

 
$dog = "Benjamin"
$Dog = "Samba"
$DOG = "Bernie"
 
"There is just one dog named {0}." -f $dOg
 
Output:
There is just one dog named Bernie.

Prolog[edit]

In Prolog, the initial of a variable must be a uppercase letter. So the task can't be completed but we can write this code :

three_dogs :-
DoG = 'Benjamin',
Dog = 'Samba',
DOG = 'Bernie',
format('The three dogs are named ~w, ~w and ~w.~n', [DoG, Dog, DOG]).
 

The output is :

?- three_dogs.
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.
true.

PureBasic[edit]

dog$="Benjamin"
Dog$="Samba"
DOG$="Bernie"
Debug "There is just one dog named "+dog$

Python[edit]

Python names are case sensitive:

>>> dog = 'Benjamin'; Dog = 'Samba'; DOG = 'Bernie'
>>> print ('The three dogs are named ',dog,', ',Dog,', and ',DOG)
The three dogs are named Benjamin , Samba , and Bernie
>>>

R[edit]

dog <- 'Benjamin'
Dog <- 'Samba'
DOG <- 'Bernie'
 
# Having fun with cats and dogs
cat('The three dogs are named ')
cat(dog)
cat(', ')
cat(Dog)
cat(' and ')
cat(DOG)
cat('.\n')
# In one line it would be:
# cat('The three dogs are named ', dog, ', ', Dog, ' and ', DOG, '.\n', sep = '')

Output:

The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

Racket[edit]

The default setting for the Racket reader is to be case sensitive:

 
#lang racket
(define dog "Benjamin")
(define Dog "Samba")
(define DOG "Bernie")
 
(if (equal? dog DOG)
(displayln (~a "There is one dog named " DOG "."))
(displayln (~a "The three dogs are named " dog ", " Dog ", and, " DOG ".")))
 

Output:

The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba, and, Bernie.

If you need case insensitive identifiers, then use #ci to turn on case insensitivity:

 
#lang racket
#ci(module dogs racket
(define dog "Benjamin")
(set! Dog "Samba")
(set! DOG "Bernie")
(if (equal? dog DOG)
(displayln (~a "There is one dog named " DOG "."))
(displayln (~a "The three dogs are named " dog ", " Dog ", and, " DOG "."))))
(require 'dogs)
 

Output:

There is one dog named Bernie.

Retro[edit]

Retro is case sensitive.

: dog  ( -$ )  "Benjamin" ;
: Dog ( -$ ) "Samba" ;
: DOG ( -$ ) "Bernie" ;
 
DOG Dog dog "The three dogs are named %s, %s, and %s.\n" puts

REXX[edit]

simple variables[edit]

The REXX language is case insensitive   (with respect to simple variables).

/*REXX program demonstrate  case insensitivity  for  simple  REXX  variable names.      */
 
/* ┌──◄── all 3 left─hand side REXX variables are identical (as far as assignments). */
/* │ */
/* ↓ */
dog= 'Benjamin' /*assign a lowercase variable (dog)*/
Dog= 'Samba' /* " " capitalized " Dog */
DOG= 'Bernie' /* " an uppercase " DOG */
 
say center('using simple variables', 35, "─") /*title.*/
say
 
if dog\==Dog | DOG\==dog then say 'The three dogs are named:' dog"," Dog 'and' DOG"."
else say 'There is just one dog named:' dog"."
 
/*stick a fork in it, we're all done. */

output

──────using simple variables───────

There is just one dog named: Bernie.

compound variables[edit]

However, the REXX language is case sensitive   (with respect to compound variables, or indices).

/*REXX program demonstrate case sensitive REXX  index  names  (for compound variables). */
 
/* ┌──◄── all 3 indices (for an array variable) are unique (as far as array index). */
/* │ */
/* ↓ */
x= 'dog'; dogname.x= "Gunner" /*assign an array index, lowercase dog*/
x= 'Dog'; dogname.x= "Thor" /* " " " " capitalized Dog*/
x= 'DOG'; dogname.x= "Jax" /* " " " " uppercase DOG*/
x= 'doG'; dogname.x= "Rex" /* " " " " mixed doG*/
 
say center('using compound variables', 35, "═") /*title.*/
say
 
_= 'dog'; say "dogname.dog=" dogname._ /*display an array index, lowercase dog*/
_= 'Dog'; say "dogname.Dog=" dogname._ /* " " " " capitalized Dog*/
_= 'DOG'; say "dogname.DOG=" dogname._ /* " " " " uppercase DOG*/
_= 'doG'; say "dogname.doG=" dogname._ /* " " " " mixed doG*/
 
/*stick a fork in it, we're all done. */

output

═════using compound variables══════

dogname.dog= Gunner
dogname.Dog= Thor
dogname.DOG= Jax
dogname.doG= Rex

Ring[edit]

 
dog = "Benjamin"
doG = "Smokey"
Dog = "Samba"
DOG = "Bernie"
see "The 4 dogs are : " + dog + ", " + doG + ", " + Dog + " and " + DOG + "."
 

Ruby[edit]

Ruby gives a special meaning to the first letter of a name. A lowercase letter starts a local variable. An uppercase letter starts a constant. So dog is a local variable, but Dog and DOG are constants. To adapt this task to Ruby, I added dOg and doG so that I have more than one local variable.

module FiveDogs
dog = "Benjamin"
dOg = "Dogley"
doG = "Fido"
Dog = "Samba" # this constant is FiveDogs::Dog
DOG = "Bernie" # this constant is FiveDogs::DOG
 
names = [dog, dOg, doG, Dog, DOG]
names.uniq!
puts "There are %d dogs named %s." % [names.length, names.join(", ")]
puts
puts "The local variables are %s." % local_variables.join(", ")
puts "The constants are %s." % constants.join(", ")
end
Output:
There are 5 dogs named Benjamin, Dogley, Fido, Samba, Bernie.

The local variables are dog, dOg, doG, names.
The constants are Dog, DOG.

Rust[edit]

Rust style dictates that identifiers should be written in snake case, e.g. big_dog, small_dog; whereas types (structs and enums) should be written in camel case, e.g. BigDog, SmallDog. Failing to comply with this standard does not cause a compiler error, but it will trigger a compiler warning, and the culture is very strongly towards compliance with this standard.

fn main() {
let dog = "Benjamin";
let Dog = "Samba";
let DOG = "Bernie";
println!("The three dogs are named {}, {} and {}.", dog, Dog, DOG);
}

This triggers two warnings at compilation:

<anon>:3:9: 3:12 warning: variable `Dog` should have a snake case name such as `dog`, #[warn(non_snake_case)] on by default
<anon>:3 let Dog = "Samba";
^~~
<anon>:4:9: 4:12 warning: variable `DOG` should have a snake case name such as `dog`, #[warn(non_snake_case)] on by default
<anon>:4 let DOG = "Bernie";
^~~

The resulting program will compile and run just fine, producing the output:

The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

Run BASIC[edit]

 
dog$ = "Benjamin"
doG$ = "Smokey"
Dog$ = "Samba"
DOG$ = "Bernie"
print "The 4 dogs are "; dog$; ", "; doG$; ", "; Dog$; " and "; DOG$; "."
 

Sather[edit]

Though by convention Sather uses all uppercase letters for class names, a variable can be all uppercase.

class MAIN is
main is
dog ::= "Benjamin";
Dog ::= "Samba";
DOG ::= "Bernie";
#OUT + #FMT("The three dogs are %s, %s and %s\n",
dog, Dog, DOG);
end;
end;

Outputs:

The three dogs are Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

Scala[edit]

val dog = "Benjamin"
val Dog = "Samba"
val DOG = "Bernie"
println("There are three dogs named " + dog + ", " + Dog + ", and " + DOG + ".")

Output:

There are three dogs named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie.

Scheme[edit]

Output may differ depending on implementation.

(define dog "Benjamin")
(define Dog "Samba")
(define DOG "Bernie")
 
(if (eq? dog DOG)
(begin (display "There is one dog named ")
(display DOG)
(display ".")
(newline))
(begin (display "The three dogs are named ")
(display dog) (display ", ")
(display Dog) (display " and ")
(display DOG)
(display ".")
(newline)))

Seed7[edit]

$ include "seed7_05.s7i";
 
const string: dog is "Benjamin";
const string: Dog is "Samba";
const string: DOG is "Bernie";
 
const proc: main is func
begin
writeln("The three dogs are named " <& dog <& ", " <& Dog <& " and " <& DOG <& ".");
end func;

SETL[edit]

dog := 'Benjamin';
Dog := 'Samba';
DOG := 'Bernie';
print( 'There is just one dog named', dOg );
Output:
There is just one dog named Bernie

Sidef[edit]

var dog = 'Benjamin';
var Dog = 'Samba';
var DOG = 'Bernie';
say "The three dogs are named #{dog}, #{Dog}, and #{DOG}.";
Output:
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie.

Simula[edit]

Simula identifiers are case-insensitive, and the compiler will indignantly reject a program that tries to declare multiple variables with names differing only in case.

begin
text dog;
dog :- blanks( 8 );
dog := "Benjamin";
Dog := "Samba";
DOG := "Bernie";
outtext( "There is just one dog, named " );
outtext( dog );
outimage
end
Output:
There is just one dog, named Bernie

Smalltalk[edit]

Works with: GNU Smalltalk

Smalltalk's symbols are case sensitive.

|dog Dog DOG|
dog := 'Benjamin'.
Dog := 'Samba'.
DOG := 'Bernie'.
( 'The three dogs are named %1, %2 and %3' %
{ dog . Dog . DOG } ) displayNl.

Outputs:

The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

SNOBOL4[edit]

    DOG = 'Benjamin'
Dog = 'Samba'
dog = 'Bernie'
OUTPUT = 'The three dogs are named ' DOG ', ' Dog ', and ' dog
END
Output:
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie

Standard ML[edit]

Standard ML is case sensitive.

let
val dog = "Benjamin"
val Dog = "Samba"
val DOG = "Bernie"
in
print("The three dogs are named " ^ dog ^ ", " ^ Dog ^ ", and " ^ DOG ^ ".\n")
end;
Output:
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie.

Stata[edit]

Stata is case-sensitive.

. local dog Benjamin
. local Dog Samba
. local DOG Bernie
. display "The three dogs are named $_dog, $_Dog, and $_DOG."
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie.

Swift[edit]

let dog = "Benjamin"
let Dog = "Samba"
let DOG = "Bernie"
println("The three dogs are named \(dog), \(Dog), and \(DOG).")

Tcl[edit]

Tcl variable names are case sensitive:

set dog "Benjamin"
set Dog "Samba"
set DOG "Bernie"
puts "The three dogs are named $dog, $Dog and $DOG"

Which prints...

The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie

UNIX Shell[edit]

dog="Benjamin"
Dog="Samba"
DOG="Bernie"
echo "The three dogs are named $dog, $Dog and $DOG."

The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba and Bernie.

Ursa[edit]

Ursa names are case sensitive:

> decl string dog Dog DOG
> set dog "Benjamin"
> set Dog "Samba"
> set DOG "Bernie"
> out "The three dogs are named " dog ", " Dog ", and " DOG endl console
The three dogs are named Benjamin, Samba, and Bernie
>

XLISP[edit]

XLISP is entirely case-insensitive. The user can decide whether to have the system print symbols, etc., in capitals or in lower case, by assigning to the variable *PRINT-CASE*.

(SETQ DOG 'BENJAMIN)
(SETQ Dog 'SAMBA)
(SETQ dog 'BERNIE)
(DISPLAY `(THERE IS JUST ONE DOG NAMED ,DOG))

There is, in any event, only one dog.

(THERE IS JUST ONE DOG NAMED BERNIE)

XPL0[edit]

XPL0 is normally case-insensitive, so there is really just one dog named Bernie. However, it has a command-line switch (/c) that turns case sensitivity on. All names must start with a capital letter (or an underline, so they can't clash with command words such as 'for'). Thus "dog" cannot be used as a name, but Dog, DOG and DoG (and For) can. The intent of the command-line switch (/c) is to detect inconsistent capitalizing of names such as Ascii and ASCII or CpuReg and CPUReg.

ZX Spectrum Basic[edit]

10 LET D$="Benjamin"
20 PRINT "There is just one dog named ";d$

zkl[edit]

var dog = "Benjamin", Dog = "Samba", DOG = "Bernie";
Output:
vars
L(L("DOG","Bernie"),L("Dog","Samba"),L("dog","Benjamin"))