# Null object

Null object
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Null (or nil) is the computer science concept of an undefined or unbound object. Some languages have an explicit way to access the null object, and some don't. Some languages distinguish the null object from undefined values, and some don't.

Show how to access null in your language by checking to see if an object is equivalent to the null object.

This task is not about whether a variable is defined. The task is about "null"-like values in various languages, which may or may not be related to the defined-ness of variables in your language.

## 8th

` null? if "item was null" . then `

## ActionScript

`if (object == null)    trace("object is null");`

ActionScript also has an undefined value: see Undefined values#ActionScript.

`with Ada.Text_Io; if Object = null then   Ada.Text_Io.Put_line("object is null");end if;`

## ALGOL 68

In ALGOL 68 the NIL yields a name that does not refer to any value. NIL can never be naturally coerced and can only appear where the context is strong.

Works with: ALGOL 68 version Revision 1 - no extensions to language used
Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release 1.18.0-9h.tiny
Works with: ELLA ALGOL 68 version Any (with appropriate job cards) - tested with release 1.8-8d
`REF STRING no result = NIL;STRING result := ""; IF no result :=: NIL THEN print(("no result :=: NIL", new line)) FI;IF result :/=: NIL THEN print(("result :/=: NIL", new line)) FI; IF no result IS NIL THEN print(("no result IS NIL", new line)) FI;IF result ISNT NIL THEN print(("result ISNT NIL", new line)) FI; COMMENT using the UNESCO/IFIP/WG2.1 ALGOL 68 character set  result := °;  IF REF STRING(result) :≠: ° THEN print(("result ≠ °", new line)) FI;END COMMENT # Note the following gotcha: # REF STRING var := NIL;IF var ISNT NIL THEN print(("The address of var ISNT NIL",new line)) FI;IF var IS REF STRING(NIL) THEN print(("The address of var IS REF STRING(NIL)",new line)) FI`

Output:

```no result :=: NIL
result :/=: NIL
no result IS NIL
result ISNT NIL
The address of var ISNT NIL
The address of var IS REF STRING(NIL)
```

NIL basically is an untyped ref (pointer) that does not refer anywhere.

ALGOL 68 also has empty. This is a "constant" of size 0 and type void. c.f. Roots of a function for two different examples of usage.

• empty as an undefined argument to a routine.
• empty as a routine return if no result is found.

empty is typically used to refer to am empty leaf in a tree structure.

Basically:

• ALGOL 68's empty is python's `None`,
• ALGOL 68's void is python's `NoneType`, and
• ALGOL 68's nil is python's `hash(None)`

## ALGOL W

`begin    % declare a record type - will be accessed via references                %    record R( integer f1, f2, f3 );    % declare a reference to a R instance                                    %    reference(R) refR;    % assign null to the reference                                           %    refR := null;    % test for a null reference - will write "refR is null"                  %    if refR = null then write( "refR is null" ) else write( "not null" );end.`

## AmigaE

`DEF x : PTR TO object-> ...IF object <> NIL  -> ...ENDIF`

## AppleScript

Many applications will return `missing value`, but `null` is also available.

`if x is missing value then  display dialog "x is missing value"end if if x is null then  display dialog "x is null"end if`

## AutoHotkey

`If (object == null)  MsgBox, object is null`

## AutoIt

`Local \$object = NullIf \$object = Null Then MsgBox(0, "NULL", "Object is null")`

## AWK

Undefined elements correspond to an empty string; when converted to a numerical value, it evaluates to 0. In order to distinguish a undefined value from a value of 0, length(var) need to be used.

`#!/usr/bin/awk -fBEGIN {   b=0;   print "<"b,length(b)">"   print "<"u,length(u)">"   print "<"u+0,length(u+0)">"; }`

Output

```<0 1>
< 0>
<0 1>```

## Axe

Null pointers can be checked by simply comparing the pointer with 0.

`If P=0 Disp "NULL PTR",iEnd`

## Babel

In this example, we place nil on the stack, then perform an if-then-else (ifte) based on the value returned by the 'nil?' operator which returns true if top-of-stack (TOS) is nil. If TOS is nil, then we can be relieved, otherwise, the interpreter has gone absolutely haywire. The '<<' operator prints the selected string to STDOUT.

`{ nil { nil? } { "Whew!\n" } { "Something is terribly wrong!\n" } ifte << }`

## BASIC

### Applesoft BASIC

Applesoft has no built-in object system. The closest values to NULL or nil for each of the types are 0 for integers and floating point numbers, and "" for strings. There is also the NUL character: CHR\$(0). One could create an object system using global variables and include a special value for NULL, but this is probably a mistake.

`TRUE = 1 : FALSE = 0NULL = TRUEIF NULL THEN PRINT "NULL"NULL = FALSEIF NOT NULL THEN PRINT "NOT NULL"`
Output:
```NULL
NOT NULL```

### BBC BASIC

A null object has a pointer with a value of zero or one.

`      PROCtestobjects      END       DEF PROCtestobjects      PRIVATE a(), b(), s{}, t{}      DIM a(123)      DIM s{a%, b#, c\$}       IF !^a() <= 1 PRINT "a() is null" ELSE PRINT "a() is not null"      IF !^b() <= 1 PRINT "b() is null" ELSE PRINT "b() is not null"      IF !^s{} <= 1 PRINT "s{} is null" ELSE PRINT "s{} is not null"      IF !^t{} <= 1 PRINT "t{} is null" ELSE PRINT "t{} is not null"      ENDPROC`

Output:

```a() is not null
b() is null
s{} is not null
t{} is null
```

## Bracmat

Bracmat has no null objects.

The operators for multiplication, addition and concatenation have neutral elements, which are `1`, `0` and the empty string, respectively, but these are values like any other string.

` a:?x*a*?z  {assigns 1 to x and to z}a:?x+a+?z  {assigns 0 to x and to z}a:?x a ?z  {assigns "" (or (), which is equivalent) to x and to z} `

## C

C has the null pointer, written as "0", whose internal representation is often, though not always, the same as integer zero. It is (supposedly) garanteed to be pointing to nothing, so receiving one of those likely means you are not looking at an object--but, there are occasions where changing content of a null pointer actually does something (say, on DOS); and a function that's supposed to return a pointer on success doesn't always return a 0 otherwise (e.g. mmap returns -1 for failure).

There is a very common macro, `NULL`, which evaluates to `(void*) 0` or an equivalent value. NULL is compatible with all pointer types, including both data pointers and function pointers.

The standard library defines NULL in locale.h, stddef.h, stdio.h, stdlib.h, string.h, time.h and wchar.h. POSIX systems also define NULL in dirent.h and unistd.h. Many C files include at least one of these headers, so NULL is almost always available.

`#include <stdio.h> int main(){	char *object = 0; 	if (object == NULL) {		puts("object is null");	}	return 0;}`

## C++

In C++ non-pointer types do not support null. (C++ provides value semantics rather than reference semantics). When using pointers C++ permits checking for null by comparing the pointer to a literal of 0, or (as in C) by way of a macro (NULL) which simply expands to 0.

`#include <iostream>#include <cstdlib>if (object == 0) {   std::cout << "object is null";}`

boost::optional is available for cases where the programmer wishes to pass by value, but still support a null value.

` #include <boost/optional.hpp>#include <iostream> boost::optional<int> maybeInt() int main(){  boost::optional<int> maybe = maybeInt();   if(!maybe)    std::cout << "object is null\n";} `

### C++11

In C++11 there is `nullptr` of type `nullptr_t` which represents a pointer to an invalid place. You can use it like

` int *p = nullptr;...if (p == nullptr){  // do some thing}//or justif (p){  // do some thing} `

## C#

As with Java, any reference type may be null, and testing for nullity uses ordinary boolean operators.

`if (foo == null)    Console.WriteLine("foo is null");`

C# 2.0 introduced nullable types for situations in which even primitive value types may have undefined or unknown values (for example, when reading from a database). Prior to the introduction of nullable types, these situations would require writing wrapper classes or casting to a reference type (e.g., object), incurring the penalties of boxing and reduced type safety. A variable with nullable type can be declared simply by adding the '?' operator after the type.

Works with: C# version 2.0+
`int? x = 12;x = null;`

Also new in C# 2.0 was the null coalescing operator, '??', which is simply syntactic sugar allowing a default value to replace an operand if the operand is null:

Works with: C# version 2.0+
`Console.WriteLine(name ?? "Name not specified"); //Without the null coalescing operator, this would instead be written as://if(name == null){//	Console.WriteLine("Name not specified");//}else{//	Console.WriteLine(name);//}`

## Chapel

Objects variables without an initializer expression will be initiallized to nil:

`class C { };var c:C; // is nilwriteln(if c == nil then "nil" else "something");`

## Clojure

Clojure's `nil` is equivalent to Java's `null`.

`(let [x nil] (println "Object is" (if (nil? x) "nil" "not nil")))`

Test wether symbol `foo` is defined:

`(find (ns-interns *ns*) 'foo)`

Undefining `foo`:

`(ns-unmap *ns* 'foo)`

## COBOL

Works with GnuCOBOL 2.0

`       identification division.       program-id. null-objects.       remarks. test with cobc -x -j null-objects.cob        data division.       working-storage section.       01 thing-not-thing      usage pointer.       *> call a subprogram      *>   with one null pointer      *>   an omitted parameter      *>   and expect void return (callee returning omitted)      *>   and do not touch default return-code (returning nothing)       procedure division.       call "test-null" using thing-not-thing omitted returning nothing       goback.       end program null-objects.       *> Test for pointer to null (still a real thing that takes space)      *>   and an omitted parameter, (call frame has placeholder)      *>   and finally, return void, (omitted)       identification division.       program-id. test-null.        data division.       linkage section.       01 thing-one            usage pointer.       01 thing-two            pic x.        procedure division using           thing-one           optional thing-two           returning omitted.        if thing-one equal null then           display "thing-one pointer to null" upon syserr       end-if        if thing-two omitted then           display "no thing-two was passed" upon syserr       end-if       goback.       end program test-null.`
Output:
```prompt\$ cobc -x -j null-objects.cob
thing-one pointer to null
no thing-two was passed
```

## Common Lisp

#### Basics

Common Lisp has an object denoted by the symbol `nil`. When the symbol `nil` is evaluated as an expression, it evaluates to itself.

`nil` uniquely represents boolean false, and so code like
`(if (condition) (do-this))`
is actually testing whether `(condition)` returns the value `nil`. The object `nil` is also used to denote the empty list which also terminates other lists. The value is also used as a default when some function returns fewer values than expected. `(list (values))` produces `(nil)` (list containing one element, which is the empty list), because `(values)` produces no value, but the function call `(list ...)` needs to reduce the expression to a single argument value, and so `nil` is supplied.

#### Beginnings of Null Object

The idea of making functions accept `nil` without failing did not appear in early Lisps. For instance `(car nil)` was erroneous: it was incorrect to try to access the first element of a non-list.

The defaulting behavior `(car nil)` which Common Lisp programmers take for granted was introduced in InterLisp, and then copied into MacLisp. (InterLisp had other liberties that do not survive into Common Lisp: it was possible to call a function with insufficient arguments, and the missing ones defaulted to `nil`. Likewise, excess arguments were ignored. CL has a disciplined syntax and semantics for default and variable arguments.)

This `(car nil) -> nil` behavior shows `nil` in an kind of new role: the role of a null object which takes methods that apply to other objects and provides some default non-failing behavior. It is the beginnings of the [null object design pattern].

#### Object-Oriented Null Object

In Common Lisp, in fact, there is a class called `null`, of which the object `nil` is understood to be the only instance. Furthermore, the `null` class is at the bottom of the type spindle: it is a subclass of every class. This is in contrast with the type `T` which is a superclass of every class.

Since `null` is at the bottom of the class hierarchy, it is possible to write methods specialized to parameters of class `null` which will only be applicable if the argument is the object `nil`. No other object is a subtype of `null`.

Some traditional Lisp functions could be expressed using the object system like this. Suppose that the `car` function did not have a safe defaulting behavior for `nil`. We could use the methods of the object system to define a `car*` which does have the safe behavior:

`(defmethod car* ((arg cons))  (car arg)) (defmethod car* ((arg null))  nil)`

Now if we invoke `car*` on something which is neither a cons, nor `nil`, we get an error about no applicable method being found.

We can handle that ourselves by writing a method specialized to the master supertype `t`:

`(defmethod car* ((arg t))  ;; can just be written (defmethod car* (arg) ...)  (error "CAR*: ~s is neither a cons nor nil" arg))`

The classes `t` and `null` are widely exploited in Lisp OO programming.

## Component Pascal

` MODULE ObjectNil;IMPORT StdLog;TYPE 	Object = POINTER TO ObjectDesc;	ObjectDesc = RECORD	END;VAR		x: Object; (* default initialization to NIL *) PROCEDURE DoIt*;BEGIN 	IF x = NIL THEN		StdLog.String("x is NIL");StdLog.Ln	ENDEND DoIt; END ObjectNil. `

## D

In D is is used to perform bitwise identity, like to compare an object reference against null.

`import std.stdio; class K {} void main() {    K k;    if (k is null)        writeln("k is null");    k = new K;    if (k !is null)        writeln("Now k is not null");}`
Output:
```k is null
Now k is not null```

## Delphi

`  // the following are equivalent  if lObject = nil then  ...   if not Assigned(lObject) then   ...`

## Déjà Vu

There isn't an actual null object, so generally falsy objects are used to indicate a missing value, or when that's impractical a specific ident:

`if not obj:    pass #obj is seen as null if = :nil obj:    pass #obj is seen as null`

See Delphi

## E

`object == null`

## EchoLisp

The null object - null - is the same as the empty list (). It may be tested with the null? or !null? predicates. NB : null is not the same as the boolean #f (false). null evaluates to #t (true) in logical operations.

` null → null() → null(null? 3) → #f(!null? 4) → #t(null? null) → #t ;; careful - null is not false :(if null 'OUI 'NON) → OUI ;; usual usage : recursion on lists until (null? list)(define (f list)     (when (!null? list)     (write (first list)) (f (rest list)))) (f '( a b c))  →  a b c `

## Eiffel

Any reference type variable can be Void. In the following example, STRING is a reference type, while INTEGER is an expanded type. The keyword "detachable" (as opposed to "attached") is used to indicate that the variable "s" may be Void. The default interpretation when neither of these two keywords is used depends on a compiler option. The first if statement will cause a compiler warning because an expanded type variable such as i will never be Void.

` class	APPLICATIONinherit	ARGUMENTScreate	make feature {NONE} -- Initialization 	make		local			i: INTEGER			s: detachable STRING		do			if i = Void then				print("i = Void")			end			if s = Void then				print("s = Void")			end		endend`
Output:
`s = Void`

## Elixir

`nil` is atom in fact:

`iex(1)> nil == :niltrueiex(2)> is_nil(nil)true`

`nil` is thought of as being `false` in the conditional expression.

If the condition given to `if/2` returns `false` or `nil`, the body given between `do`/`end` is not executed and it simply returns `nil`.

`iex(3)> if nil, do: "not execute"nil`

## Erlang

Erlang does not have an null object.

As an alternative, many applications tend to pick a convention for returning an empty condition and use that.

Example alternatives:

1. Something like
`{ok, 3} % normal case`
or
`{err, no_more} % error case`
on error.
2. Don't ever allow an undefined return value, and throw an exception instead.
3. Return an atom:
1. undefined*
2. undef
3. null
4. nil
5. none

undefined is often used by records as an initial value and the stdlib module.

Atoms are erlang's user-defined constants that always evaluates to is itself. It is also equal to no other value else but itself.

## F#

As a .Net languages F# inherits the null as a potential value for object variables. Other than in interfacing assemblies written in other .Net languages, null rarely serves a purpose in F# code. Contrived code, to show using null, as per task description:

`let sl : string list = [null; "abc"] let f s =    match s with    | null -> "It is null!"    | _ -> "It's non-null: " + s for s in sl do printfn "%s" (f s)`

## Factor

`: is-f? ( obj -- ? ) f = ;`

## Fantom

Test for equality with 'null', which is the null value.

` fansh> x := nullfansh> x == nulltruefansh> x = 11fansh> x == nullfalse `

Note, nullable objects have a type ending in a question mark, for example:

`Int? y := null` is valid, but

`Int y := null` is not.

## Forth

Standard ANS Forth does not distinguish a particular invalid memory value like NULL. Instead, ALLOCATE returns an out-of-band success code to indicate a failed allocation. Dictionary words have the option of throwing an exception on a dictionary space overrun. Forth lacks a NULL symbol because it has such a wide variety of target platforms. On some embedded targets, the memory space may be as small as 64 direct-mapped addresses, where eliminating a valid zero address would have a high price.

In practice, all notable hosted implementations follow the C practice of being able to treat a zero address (i.e. FALSE) as a null address for the purpose of list termination.

## FreeBASIC

`'FB 1.05.0 Win64 ' FreeBASIC does not have a NULL keyword but it's possible to create one using a macro #Define NULL CPtr(Any Ptr, 0) '' Any Ptr is implicitly convertible to pointers of other types Type Dog  name As String  age As IntegerEnd Type Dim d As Dog Ptr = New Dogd->Name = "Rover"d->Age = 5Print d->Name, d->AgeDelete d d = NULL '' guard against 'd' being used accidentally in future  ' in practice many FB developers would simply have written: d = 0 aboveSleep`
Output:
```Rover          5
```

## Go

Nil is a predefined identifier, defined for six types in Go. In each case, it represents the zero value for the type, that is, the memory representation of all zero bytes. This is the value of a newly created object. In the cases of these six types, an object must be subsequently initialized in some way before it has much use. Examples of initialization are given in the Go solution of task Undefined values.

` package main import "fmt" var (    s []int       // slice type    p *int        // pointer type    f func()      // function type    i interface{} // interface type    m map[int]int // map type    c chan int    // channel type) func main() {    fmt.Println(s == nil)    fmt.Println(p == nil)    fmt.Println(f == nil)    fmt.Println(i == nil)    fmt.Println(m == nil)    fmt.Println(c == nil)} `

Output is "true" in each case.

Haskell does not have a universal null value. There is a 'value of every type', the undefined value (sometimes written ⊥, 'bottom'), but it is essentially a sort of exception — any attempt to use it is an error.

`undefined      -- undefined value provided by the standard libraryerror "oops"   -- another undefined valuehead []        -- undefined, you can't take the head of an empty list`

When one would use "null" as a marker for "there is no normal value here" (e.g. a field which is either an integer or null), one uses the Maybe type instead. The definition of Maybe is:

` data Maybe a = Nothing | Just a`

That is, a Maybe Integer is either Nothing or Just <some integer>.

There are many ways to work with Maybe, but here's a basic case expression:

`case thing of Nothing -> "It's Nothing. Or null, whatever." Just v  -> "It's not Nothing; it is " ++ show v ++ "."`

It is easy to work with Maybe type using do-notation (since Maybe is a monad):

`add_two_maybe_numbers x y do  a <- x  b <- y  return (a+b)`

Then

`*Main> add_two_maybe_numbers (Just 2) (Just 3)Just 5*Main> add_two_maybe_numbers (Just 2) Nothing Nothing`

## Icon and Unicon

Icon/Unicon have a null value/datatype. It isn't possible to undefine a variable.

`procedure main()nulltest("a",a)                # unassigned variables are null by defaultnulltest("b",b := &null)       # explicit assignment is possiblenulltest("c",c := "anything")nulltest("c",c := &null)       # varibables can't be undefinedend procedure nulltest(name,var)return write(name, if /var then " is" else " is not"," null.")end`

## Io

`if(object == nil, "object is nil" println)`

## J

J doesn't have an untyped NULL. Instead, it has a concept of "fill". Numeric fill is 0, character fill is the space character, and boxed fill is the ace (a:) which is an empty box. Fill is what is used to pad an array structure when that is needed. (And some operations support using a user specified value in place of the default fill.)

To indicate "missing data", "normal" data is usually pressed into service (e.g. 0 or _1 in a numeric context, ' ' in a literal context, a: in a boxed context, etc). Frequently, missing data is represented by the empty vector '', or other arrays without any elements.

That said, undefined names in J are not associated with any data of any type. Furthermore, any attempt to use the value of an undefined is treated as an error (this is distinct from the concept of an empty array, which contains no data but which is not an error to use). However, it is possible to check if a name is defined before attempting to use it:

`isUndefined=: _1 = [email protected]`

Example use:

`   isUndefined 'foo'1   foo=:9   isUndefined 'foo'0`

Note, of course, that this "name is not defined" state is not a first class value in J -- you can not create a list of "undefineds".

Finally, note: the concept of an empty array can be natural in J (and APL) for representing data which is not there -- it is the structural equivalent of the number zero. That said, its implications can sometimes be non-obvious for people coming from a languages which requires that arrays have content. As a result, you will sometimes encounter empty array jokes...

Marie Pennysworth, having spent a productive day shopping, stopped by Robert Cuttingham's butcher shop.
"Eleven dollars per pound," he responded.
"Sirloin is thirteen dollars per pound today," he answered.
"But Harkin's Grocery down the street is selling sirloin for nine dollars per pound!" she exclaimed.
"Well, they're out," she sighed.
He smiled, "When I am out, I only charge seven dollars a pound."

That said, note that a typical way to indicate missing or invalid data, in J, is to have a parallel array which is a bit mask (which selects the desired or valid values and, by implication, does not select the invalid values). Or, as a logical equivalent: a list of indices which select the desired and/or valid values. Alternatively, you can have an array without the invalid values and a bit mask which demonstrates how the data would be populated on a larger array -- in other words instead of 3,4,null,5 you could have (3 4 5) and (1 1 0 1). And you can transform between some of these representations:

`   1 1 0 1#3 4 _ 5           NB. use bitmask to select numbers3 4 5   I.1 1 0 1                 NB. get indices for bitmask0 1 3   0 1 3 { 3 4 _ 5           NB. use indices to select numbers3 4 5   1 1 0 1 #inv 3 4 5        NB. use bitmask to restore original positions3 4 0 5   1 1 0 1 #!._ inv 3 4 5    NB. specify different fill element3 4 _ 5   3 4 5 (0 1 3}) _ _ _ _    NB. use indices to restore original positions3 4 _ 5`

## Java

In Java, "null" is a value of every reference type.

`// here "object" is a referenceif (object == null) {   System.out.println("object is null");}`

## JavaScript

In Javascript null is the value that isn't anything. null is not an object, but because of a bug typeof null will return "object".

`if (object === null) {  alert("object is null");  // The object is nothing} typeof null === "object"; // This stands since the beginning of JavaScript`

## jq

jq has null as a value, but while on the subject of nothing, it may be worth mentioning that jq also has a filter, empty, for producing an empty sequence, a.k.a. nothing.

null is distinct from false. Here are some examples:

`null|type      # => "null" null == false  # => false null == null   # => true empty|type     # =>  # i.e. nothing (as in, nada) empty == empty # =>  # niente empty == "black hole" # =>  # Ничего`

## Julia

See language reference: https://docs.julialang.org/en/stable/manual/faq/#Nothingness-and-missing-values-1

## K

K has well developed notions of data null :

The special numeric atoms 0I and 0N refer to integer infinity and “not-a-number” (or “null” in database parlance) concepts, and similarly 0i and 0n for floating-point.

eg : ( 1 2 3 0N 6 7 )

and and missing value nil :

Empty expressions in both list expressions and function expressions actually represent a special atomic value called nil. ... A list may contain one or more empty items (i.e. the nil value _n), which are typically indicated by omission:
`   (1;;2) ~ (1 ; _n ; 2)    /  ~  is ''identical to'' or ''match'' .1  _n ~' ( 1 ; ; 2 )        /  ''match each''0 1 0  additional properties :  [email protected] and _n?i are i; _n`v is _n  `

For more detail on K's concept of typed nulls, see http://code.kx.com/wiki/Reference/Datatypes#Primitive_Types

## Kotlin

Kotlin distinguishes between non-nullable types and nullable types. The latter are distinguished from the former by a '?' suffix. Only nullable types have a 'null' value indicating that they don't currently refer to an object of their non-nullable equivalent.

In addition, Kotlin has a Nothing type which has no instances and is a sub-type of every other type. There is also a nullable Nothing? type whose only value is 'null' and so, technically, this is the type of 'null' itself.

Here are some examples:

`// version 1.1.0 fun main(args: Array<String>) {    val i: Int  = 3           // non-nullable Int type - can't be assigned null    println(i)    val j: Int? = null        // nullable Int type - can be assigned null    println(j)     println(null is Nothing?) // test that null is indeed of type Nothing? }`
Output:
```3
null
true
```

## Lasso

`local(x = string, y = null)#x->isA(::null) // 0 (false) #y->isA(::null) // 1 (true) #x == null// false #y == null//true #x->type == 'null'// false #y->type == 'null'//true`

## Lingo

Null/nil is called "<Void>" in Lingo. Lingo doesn't distinguish undefined variables from <Void> objects, and by using the constant VOID you can even assign <Void> to variables. Functions that don't return anything, return <Void>. Checking for <Void> (e.g. by using built-in function voidP) can be used to implement optional function arguments: if voidP() returns TRUE (1) for some argument, a default value can be assigned in the function body.

`put _global.doesNotExist-- <Void> put voidP(_global.doesNotExist)-- 1 x = VOIDput x-- <Void> put voidP(x)-- 1`

## Lily

Lily doesn't provide a built-in nothing type, but allows one to be created using enum class:

`enum class Option[A] {  Some(A)  None} # Only variables of class Option can be assigned to None. # Type: Option[integer]var v = Some(10) # Valid: v is an Option, and any Option can be assigned to Nonev = None # Invalid! v is an Option[integer], not just a plain integer.v = 10 # Type: integervar w = 10 # Invalid! Likewise, w is an integer, not an Option.w = None`

## Logo

`to test :thingif empty? :thing [print [list or word is empty]]end print empty? []  ; trueprint empty? "|| ; true`

## Lua

` isnil = (object == nil)print(isnil) `

## Maple

In Maple, NULL and () represent the null object.

`a := NULL;                                                         a := is (NULL = ());                                                         trueif a = NULL then    print (NULL);end if; `

A null object is different from an undefined value.

`b := Array([1, 2, 3, Integer(undefined), 5]);                                                        b := [ 1 2 3 undefined 5 ]numelems(b);                                                        5b := Array([1, 2, 3, Float(undefined), 5]);                                                        b := [ 1 2 3 Float(undefined) 5 ]numelems(b);                                                        5b := Array([1, 2, 3, NULL, 5]);                                                        b := [ 1 2 3 5 ]numelems(b);                                                        4 `

## Mathematica

Mathematica can assign a Null value to a symbol, two examples:

`x=Null;`
`x =.x = (1 + 2;)FullForm[x]`

Both set x to be Null. To specifically test is something is Null one can use the SameQ function (with infix operator: ===):

`SameQ[x,Null]`

Or equivalent:

`x===Null`

will give back True if and only if x is assigned to be Null. If x is empty (nothing assigned) this will return False. To test if an object has something assigned (number, list, graphics, null, infinity, symbol, equation, pattern, whatever) one uses ValueQ:

`x =.;ValueQ[x]x = 3;ValueQ[x]`

gives:

`FalseTrue`

## MATLAB / Octave

The closest think to a NULL element in Matlab/Octave is an empty field or empty string; empty fields in a conditional expression evaluate to false.

`a = []; b='';isempty(a)isempty(b)if (a)   1, else,   0end;`
```octave:4> a = []; b='';
octave:5> isempty(a)
ans =  1
octave:6> isempty(b)
ans =  1
octave:7> if (a) 1, else, 0, end;
ans = 0```

## Maxima

There is no null object in Maxima. Usually, a function that returns nothing (as the builtin "disp") returns in fact the symbol 'done.

## MAXScript

`if obj == undefined then print "Obj is undefined"`

## Modula-3

In Modula-3, `NIL` is a value, and `NULL` is a type. The `NULL` type contains only one value, `NIL`. `NULL` is a subtype of all reference types, which allows all reference types to have the value `NIL`.

This can lead to errors, if for example you write:

`VAR foo := NIL`

This (most likely incorrectly) gives foo the type `NULL`, which can only have the value `NIL`, so trying to assign it anything else will not work. To overcome this problem, you must specify the reference type when declaring foo:

`VAR foo: REF INTEGER := NIL;`
`IF foo = NIL THEN  IO.Put("Object is nil.\n");END;`

## MUMPS

A variable can be declared implicitly by using it as on the left side in a SET, or by making a new version for the current scope with a NEW statement. A variable can have descendants without having a value set.

The \$DATA (or \$D) function will return a number:

\$DATA returns: Variable is defined
Variable has children   No Yes
No 0 1
Yes 10 11

Or, by examples (in immediate mode):

` CACHE>WRITE \$DATA(VARI)0CACHE>SET VARI="HELLO" WRITE \$DATA(VARI)1CACHE>NEW VARI WRITE \$DATA(VARI) ;Change to a new scope0CACHE 1S1>SET VARI(1,2)="DOWN" WRITE \$DATA(VARI)10CACHE 1S1>WRITE \$DATA(VARI(1))10CACHE 1S1>WRITE \$D(VARI(1,2))1CACHE 1S1>SET VARI(1)="UP" WRITE \$DATA(VARI(1))11<CACHE 1S1>QUIT ;Leave the scope <CACHE>W \$DATA(VARI)," ",VARI1 HELLO `

## NetRexx

In NetRexx as in Java, "null" is a value of every reference type.

`/* NetRexx */options replace format comments java crossref symbols binary robject = Rexx -- create an object for which the value is undefinedsay String.valueOf(robject) -- will report the text "null"if robject = null then say 'Really, it''s "null"!' `

Output:

```null
Really, it's "null"!
```

## Nim

There is a `nil` value in Nim, which is the same as a 0. It can be explicitly forbidden as a value:

`var s: string = nil var ns: string not nil = nil # Compile time error`

## Oberon-2

Works with: oo2c
` MODULE Null;IMPORT  Out;TYPE  Object = POINTER TO ObjectDesc;  ObjectDesc = RECORD  END; VAR  o: Object;  (* default initialization to NIL *) BEGIN  IF o = NIL THEN Out.String("o is NIL"); Out.Ln ENDEND Null. `
Output:
```o is NIL
```

## Objective-C

The value `nil` is used to indicate that an object pointer (variable of type `id`) doesn't point to a valid object.

`// here "object" is an object pointerif (object == nil) {   NSLog("object is nil");}`

An interesting thing is that in Objective-C, it is possible to send a message to `nil`, and the program will not crash or raise an exception (nothing will be executed and `nil` will be returned in place of the usual return value).

`[nil fooBar];`

Note that `nil` is distinct from `NULL`, which is only used for regular C pointers.

For class pointers (values of type `Class`), they have a separate null pointer value called `Nil`.

Confusingly, there is also `NSNull`, a singleton class with one value, `[NSNull null]`, used as a dummy object to represent the lack of a useful object. This is needed in collections like arrays and dictionaries, etc., because they do not allow `nil` elements, so if you want to represent some "empty" slots in the array you would use this.

## Objeck

In Objeck, "Nil" is a value of every reference type.

` # here "object" is a referenceif(object = Nil) {   "object is null"->PrintLine();}; `

## OCaml

Maybe the closest type of OCaml would be the type option, which is defined like this in the standard library:

`type 'a option = None | Some of 'a`
`match v with| None -> "unbound value"| Some _ -> "bounded value"`

## Oforth

null is an object, the only instance of Null class. When an object is created, all attributes are initiallized to null value. When a method or function is called, all local variables begin with null value.

`null isNull"abcd" isNull: testNull { | a | a ifNull: [ "Variable value is null" println ] ;`

## ooRexx

ooRexx has a special singleton object called .nil that is used to indicate the absence of values in some situations (such as the default values returned from collection objects).

`    if a[i] == .nil then say "Item" i "is missing" `

Uninitialized ooRexx variables do not evaluate to .nil, but rather the character string name of the variable (all uppercase). The var() built-in function allows variable validity to be tested:

`a=.array~of('A','B')  i=3  if a[i] == .nil then say "Item" i "of array A is missing"  if \var("INPUT") then say "Variable INPUT is not assigned"  if \var("var") then say "Variable" var "is not assigned"`

Output:

```Item 3 of array A is missing
Variable INPUT is not assigned
Variable VAR is not assigned```

## Oz

There is no explicit null in Oz.

### Unbound variables

If an unbound variable is accessed, the current thread will be suspended:

`declare  Xin  {Show X+2}  %% blocks`

If you later assign a value to X in another thread, the original thread will resume and print the result of the addition. This is the basic building block of Oz' declarative concurrency.

### Undefined values

Access to undefined values (like using an out-of-range array index or a non-existing record feature) will usually provoke an exception in Oz.

It is also possible to assign a unique "failed" value to a variable. Such a failed value encapsulates an exception. This can be useful in concurrent programming to propagate exceptions across thread boundaries.

`declare  X = {Value.failed dontTouchMe}in  {Wait X}  %% throws dontTouchMe`

Sometimes algebraic data types like Haskell's Maybe are simulated using records.

`declare  X = just("Data")in  case X of nothing then skip  [] just(Result) then {Show Result}  end`

## PARI/GP

GP does not have good facilities for this, but this test suffices for most purposes:

`foo!='foo`

See Delphi

## Perl

In Perl, `undef` is a special scalar value, kind of like null in other languages. A scalar variable that has been declared but has not been assigned a value will be initialized to `undef`. (Array and hash variables are initialized to empty arrays or hashes.)

If `strict` mode is not on, you may start using a variable without declaring it; it will "spring" into existence, with value `undef`. In `strict` mode, you must declare a variable before using it. Indexing an array or hash with an index or key that does not exist, will return `undef` (however, this is not an indication that the index or key does not exist; rather, it could be that it does exist, and the value is `undef` itself). If `warnings` is on, most of the time, if you use the `undef` value in a calculation, it will produce a warning. `undef` is considered false in boolean contexts.

It is possible to use `undef` like most other scalar values: you can assign it to a variable (either by doing `\$var = undef;` or `undef(\$var);`), return it from a function, assign it to an array element, assign it to a hash element, etc. When you do list assignment (i.e. assign a list to a list of variables on the left side), you can use `undef` to "skip" over some elements of the list that you don't want to keep.

You can check to see if a value is `undef` by using the `defined` operator:

`print defined(\$x) ? 'Defined' : 'Undefined', ".\n";`

From the above discussion, it should be clear that if `defined` returns false, it does not mean that the variable has not been set; rather, it could be that it was explicitly set to `undef`.

Starting in Perl 5.10, there is also a defined-or operator in Perl. For example:

`say \$number // "unknown";`

prints \$number if it is defined (even if it is false) or the string "unknown" otherwise.

## Perl 6

(as it were...)

In Perl 6 you can name the concept of Nil, but it not considered an object, but rather the absence of an object, more of a "bottom" type. The closest analog in real objects is an empty list, but an empty list is considered defined, while Nil.defined always returns false. Nil is what you get if you try to read off the end of a list, and () is just very easy to read off the end of... :-)

If you try to put Nil into a container, you don't end up with a container that has Nil in it. Instead the container reverts to an uninitialized state that is consistent with the declared type. Hence, Perl 6 has the notion of typed undefined values, that are real objects in the sense of "being there", but are generic in the sense of representing type information without being instantiated as a real object. We call these type objects since they can stand in for real objects when one reasons about the types of objects. So type objects fit into the type hierarchy just as normal objects do. In physics terms, think of them as "type charge carriers" that are there for bookkeeping between the "real" particles.

All type objects derive from Mu, the most-undefined type object, and the object most like "null" in many languages. All other object types derive from Mu, so it is like Object in other languages as well, except Mu also encompasses various objects that are not discrete, such as junctions. So Perl 6 distinguishes Mu from Any, which is the type that functions the most like a discrete, mundane object.

Mostly the user doesn't have to think about it. All object containers behave like "Maybe" types in Haskell terms; they may either hold a valid value or a "nothing" of an appropriate type. Most containers default to an object of type Any so you don't accidentally send quantum superpositions (junctions) around in your program.

`my \$var;say \$var.WHAT;      # Any()\$var = 42;say \$var.WHAT;      # Int()say \$var.defined;   # True\$var = Nil;say \$var.WHAT;      # Any()say \$var.defined    # False`

You can declare a variable of type Mu if you wish to propagate superpositional types:

`my Mu \$junction;say \$junction.WHAT;      # Mu()\$junction = 1 | 2 | 3;say \$junction.WHAT;      # Junction()`

Or you can declare a more restricted type than Any

`my Str \$str;say \$str.WHAT;      # Str()\$str = "I am a string.";say \$str.WHAT;      # Str()\$str = 42;          # (fails)`

But in the Perl 6 view of reality, it's completely bogus to ask for a way "to see if an object is equivalent to the null object." The whole point of such a non-object object is that it doesn't exist, and can't participate in computations. If you think you mean the null object in Perl 6, you really mean some kind of generic object that is uninstantiated, and hence undefined. One of those is your "null object", except there are many of them, so you can't just check for equivalence. Use the defined predicate (or match on a subclass of your type that forces recognition of abstraction or definedness).

Perl 6 also has Failure objects that, in addition to being undefined carriers of type, are also carriers of the reason for the value's undefinedness. We tend view them as lazily thrown exceptions, at least until you try to use them as defined values, in which case they're thrown for real.

## Phix

There is a builtin NULL, however it is equivalent to the integer 0 and will trigger a type check if assigned to a variable declared as string or sequence. In most programs the zero-length string/sequence (""/{}) suffices, but if you want a variable that can be a string/sequence or NULL, but not other arbitrary integer/float values, use something like the following user-defined types:

`type nullableString(object o)    return string(o) or o=NULLend typenullableString ss = "hello"s = NULL--s = 1 -- error--s = {1,2,3} -- error type nullableSequence(object o)    return sequence(o) or o=NULLend typenullableSequence qq = {1,2,3}q = "string"    -- fine (strings are a subset of sequences)q = NULL--q = 1         -- error`

## PHL

`if (obj == null) printf("obj is null!\n");`

## PHP

There is a special value NULL. You can test for it using is_null() or !isset()

`\$x = NULL;if (is_null(\$x))  echo "\\$x is null\n";`

## PicoLisp

New internal symbols are initialized with the value NIL. NIL is also the value for "false", so there is never really an "undefined value". 'not' is the predicate to check for NIL, but many other (typically flow control) functions can be used.

`(if (not MyNewVariable)   (handle value-is-NIL) )`

or

`(unless MyNewVariable   (handle value-is-NIL) )`

## Pike

In Pike all variables are initialized to ${\displaystyle 0}$, regardless of their type. thus ${\displaystyle 0}$ functions as a `Null` value for all types except integer.

${\displaystyle 0}$ is also used to indicate the absence of a key or object member.

to tell the difference between a value ${\displaystyle 0}$ and absence of a key, `zero_type()` is used:

`> mapping bar;> bar;Result: 0> bar = ([ "foo":0 ]);> bar->foo;Result 0;> zero_type(bar->foo);Result: 0> bar->baz;Result: 0> zero_type(bar->baz);Result: 1`

## PL/I

` declare x fixed decimal (10);...if ^valid(x) then signal error; declare y picture 'A9XAAA9';...if ^valid(y) then signal error; `

Comment:- In the picture specification, the content of variable y must consist of letters where the letter 'A' is given, digits or space where the digit '9' appears, and the letter X signfies that any character is acceptable.

## PowerShell

In PowerShell the automatic variable `\$null` represents a null value. Comparisons are not left/right symmetrical which means placing `\$null` on the left side greatly assists when comparing to an array.

`if (\$null -eq \$object) {    ...}`

## PureBasic

All variables that has not yet been given any other value will be initiated to #Null

`If variable = #Null  Debug "Variable has no value"EndIf`

## Python

`x = Noneif x is None:  print "x is None"else:  print "x is not None"`
Output:
```x is None
```

## R

R has the special value NULL to represent a null object. You can test for it using the function is.null. Note that R also has a special value NA to represent missing or unknown values.

`is.null(NULL)       # TRUEis.null(123)        # FALSEis.null(NA)         # FALSE123==NULL           # Empty logical value, with a warningfoo <- function(){} # function that does nothingfoo()               # returns NULL`

## Racket

"null", or its literal form "'()", is used to denote empty lists and sometimes it is used as a generic null value.

` -> null'()-> (null? null)#t-> (null? 3)#f `

But a value that is more used as a generic "nothing" value is "#f", false. Racket also has a void value, mostly the result of side-effect functions. (And an undefined value.)

## Raven

 This example is in need of improvement: Add NULL handling with MySQL data.
`NULL as \$v\$v NULL =     # TRUE\$v NULL !=    # FALSE 1 NULL =      # FALSE1.1 NULL =    # FALSE NULL as \$v2\$v2 \$v =      # TRUE`

## REBOL

`x: none print ["x"  either none? x ["is"]["isn't"]  "none."]`

Output:

`x is none.`

REBOL also has the concept of `unset` values, testable with `get/any`

`unset? get/any 'some-varunset? get 'some-var`
Output:
```true
** Script Error: some-var has no value
** Near: unset? get 'some-var```

## REXX

REXX can have variables with a null value.
With the   symbol   built-in function, it can be determined if a variable is defined (or not).
The   length   built-in function can be used to see what the length of the value of a defined variable.
A variable with a   null   value has a length of   0   (zero).

The   drop   statement can be used to "undefine" a REXX variable.

`/*REXX program demonstrates null strings, and also undefined values. */ if symbol('ABC')=="VAR" then say 'variable ABC is defined, value='abc"<<<"                        else say "variable ABC isn't defined."xyz=47if symbol('XYZ')=="VAR" then say 'variable XYZ is defined, value='xyz"<<<"                        else say "variable XYZ isn't defined."drop xyzif symbol('XYZ')=="VAR" then say 'variable XYZ is defined, value='xyz"<<<"                        else say "variable XYZ isn't defined."cat=''if symbol('CAT')=="VAR" then say 'variable CAT is defined, value='cat"<<<"                        else say "variable CAT isn't defined."`

output

```variable ABC isn't defined.
variable XYZ is defined, value=47<<<
variable XYZ isn't defined.
variable CAT is defined, value=<<<
```

## Ring

` see isnull(5) + nl +        # print 0isnull("hello") + nl +      # print 0isnull([1,3,5]) + nl +      # print 0isnull("") + nl +           # print 1isnull("NULL")              # print 1  `

## Ruby

The value when referring to the instance variable which isn't initialized is nil.

`puts "@object is nil" if @object.nil?		# instance variable puts "\$object is nil" if \$object.nil?		# global variable, too # It recognizes as the local variable even if it isn't executed.object = 1  if falseputs "object is nil" if object.nil? # nil itself is an object:puts nil.class  # => NilClass`
Output:
```@object is nil
\$object is nil
object is nil
NilClass
```

## Rust

`// If an option may return null - or nothing - in Rust, it's wrapped// in an Optional which may return either the type of object specified// in <> or None. We can check this using .is_some() and .is_none() on// the Option. fn check_number(num: &Option<u8>) {    if num.is_none() {        println!("Number is: None");    } else {        println!("Number is: {}", num.unwrap());    }} fn main() {    let mut possible_number: Option<u8> = None;    check_number(&possible_number);     possible_number = Some(31);    check_number(&possible_number);}`

## S-lang

S-Lang uses NULL; it is the only object of type Null_Type:

`variable foo = NULL;print(foo);if (foo == NULL)   print(typeof(foo)); `
Output:
```NULL
Null_Type
```

## Scala

This blog post has a good explanations of the different types of null-like values.

` scala> Nilres0: scala.collection.immutable.Nil.type = List() scala> Nil == List()res1: Boolean = true scala> Null<console>:8: error: not found: value Null              Null              ^ scala> nullres3: Null = null scala> Noneres4: None.type = None scala> Unitres5: Unit.type = object scala.Unit scala> val a = println()a: Unit = () `

## Scheme

`(null? object)`

Note: "null?" here tests whether a value is the empty list.

## Sidef

The absence of a value is represented by nil

`var undefined;         # initialized with an implicit nilsay undefined==nil;    # truesay defined(nil)       # false`

However, nil is not an object, so we can't call methods on it. Alternatively, Sidef provides the null object:

`var null_obj = null;        # initialize with a null value  say null_obj.is_a(null);    # truesay defined(null_obj);      # true`

## Slate

`Nil isNil = True.`

## Smalltalk

`object isNil ifTrue: [ "true block" ]             ifFalse: [ "false block" ].nil isNil ifTrue: [ 'true!' displayNl ]. "output: true!"foo isNil ifTrue: [ 'ouch' displayNl ].x := (foo == nil).x := foo isNil`

notice that nil is the singleton instance of the UndefinedObject class; i.e. it is a first class object. Thus we can do:

`foo := nil.foo class. "-> UndefinedObject"foo respondsTo: #'bar'. "asking if a message is implemented" foo class compile:'fancyOperation ^ 123'.foo fancyOperation "->123"`

the last example being for demonstration only - it is not considered well behaved to add arbitrary code that way, except for framework support, such as encoding, decoding marshalling etc.)

## Standard ML

Maybe the closest type of Standard ML would be the type option, which is defined like this in the standard library:

`datatype 'a option = NONE | SOME of 'a`
`case v of NONE => "unbound value"        | SOME _ => "bounded value"`

## Swift

The closest thing in Swift are optional types.

`var opt : Int? = nil // use "nil" to represent no valueopt = 5 // or simply assign a value to the optional type`

To deconstruct it, use `if let`:

`if let v = opt {    println("There is some value: \(v)")} else {    println("There is no value")}`

## Tcl

In Tcl, where every value is a string, there is no out-of band value corresponding to NULL. In many cases, using the empty string is sufficient:

`if {\$value eq ""} ...`

A stricter approximation to NULL can be had with non-existing variables or elements of a dict or array:

`if {![info exist nullvar]} ...if {![info exists arr(nullval)]} ...if {![dict exists \$dic nullval]} ...`

Note that lists do not support anything like nulls, since they are strictly sequences of values.

## Ursa

`# the type at declaration doesn't matterdecl int x set x nullif (= x null)    out "x is null" endl consoleelse    out "x is not null" endl consoleend if`

## Visual Basic

Works with: VB6

Null by the definition of this task is called "Nothing" in VB6:

` Public Sub Main()Dim c As VBA.Collection ' initial state: NothingDebug.Assert c Is Nothing ' create an instanceSet c = New VBA.CollectionDebug.Assert Not c Is Nothing ' release the instanceSet c = NothingDebug.Assert c Is Nothing End Sub `

The Null keyword has a different meaning in VB6: it's one of the states that a Variant type variable can be in. Null means that a Variant doesn't hold valid (i.e.: defined) data.

` Public Sub Main()Dim v As Variant ' initial state: EmptyDebug.Assert IsEmpty(v)Debug.Assert VarType(v) = vbEmpty v = 1&Debug.Assert VarType(v) = vbLong ' assigning the Null statev = Null' checking for Null stateDebug.Assert IsNull(v)Debug.Assert VarType(v) = vbNull End Sub `

## Wart

The null value `nil` is also the only false value.

`(not nil) `

## zkl

In zkl, there isn't a C like 0/NULL, a value that, if referenced, causes bad things to happen. There is an Object, Void, that is used as generic NULL like thing but it is just another object.

`if(Void == n) ...return(Void)`