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# Continued fraction/Arithmetic/G(matrix ng, continued fraction n1, continued fraction n2)

Continued fraction/Arithmetic/G(matrix ng, continued fraction n1, continued fraction n2) is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.

This task performs the basic mathematical functions on 2 continued fractions. This requires the full version of matrix NG:

${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}a_{12}&a_{1}&a_{2}&a\\b_{12}&b_{1}&b_{2}&b\end{bmatrix}}}$

I may perform perform the following operations:

Input the next term of continued fraction N1
Input the next term of continued fraction N2
Output a term of the continued fraction resulting from the operation.

I output a term if the integer parts of ${\displaystyle {\frac {a}{b}}}$ and ${\displaystyle {\frac {a_{1}}{b_{1}}}}$ and ${\displaystyle {\frac {a_{2}}{b_{2}}}}$ and ${\displaystyle {\frac {a_{12}}{b_{12}}}}$ are equal. Otherwise I input a term from continued fraction N1 or continued fraction N2. If I need a term from N but N has no more terms I inject ${\displaystyle \infty }$.

When I input a term t from continued fraction N1 I change my internal state:

${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}a_{12}&a_{1}&a_{2}&a\\b_{12}&b_{1}&b_{2}&b\end{bmatrix}}}$ is transposed thus ${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}a_{2}+a_{12}*t&a+a_{1}*t&a_{12}&a_{1}\\b_{2}+b_{12}*t&b+b_{1}*t&b_{12}&b_{1}\end{bmatrix}}}$

When I need a term from exhausted continued fraction N1 I change my internal state:

${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}a_{12}&a_{1}&a_{2}&a\\b_{12}&b_{1}&b_{2}&b\end{bmatrix}}}$ is transposed thus ${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}a_{12}&a_{1}&a_{12}&a_{1}\\b_{12}&b_{1}&b_{12}&b_{1}\end{bmatrix}}}$

When I input a term t from continued fraction N2 I change my internal state:

${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}a_{12}&a_{1}&a_{2}&a\\b_{12}&b_{1}&b_{2}&b\end{bmatrix}}}$ is transposed thus ${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}a_{1}+a_{12}*t&a_{12}&a+a_{2}*t&a_{2}\\b_{1}+b_{12}*t&b_{12}&b+b_{2}*t&b_{2}\end{bmatrix}}}$

When I need a term from exhausted continued fraction N2 I change my internal state:

${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}a_{12}&a_{1}&a_{2}&a\\b_{12}&b_{1}&b_{2}&b\end{bmatrix}}}$ is transposed thus ${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}a_{12}&a_{12}&a_{2}&a_{2}\\b_{12}&b_{12}&b_{2}&b_{2}\end{bmatrix}}}$

When I output a term t I change my internal state:

${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}a_{12}&a_{1}&a_{2}&a\\b_{12}&b_{1}&b_{2}&b\end{bmatrix}}}$ is transposed thus ${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}b_{12}&b_{1}&b_{2}&b\\a_{12}-b_{12}*t&a_{1}-b_{1}*t&a_{2}-b_{2}*t&a-b*t\end{bmatrix}}}$

When I need to choose to input from N1 or N2 I act:

if b and b2 are zero I choose N1
if b is zero I choose N2
if b2 is zero I choose N2
if abs(${\displaystyle {\frac {a_{1}}{b_{1}}}-{\frac {a}{b}})}$ is greater than abs(${\displaystyle {\frac {a_{2}}{b_{2}}}-{\frac {a}{b}})}$ I choose N1
otherwise I choose N2

When performing arithmetic operation on two potentially infinite continued fractions it is possible to generate a rational number. eg ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$ * ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$ should produce 2. This will require either that I determine that my internal state is approaching infinity, or limiting the number of terms I am willing to input without producing any output.

## C++

Uses matrixNG, NG_4 and NG from Continued_fraction/Arithmetic/G(matrix_NG,_Contined_Fraction_N)#C++, and r2cf from Continued_fraction/Arithmetic/Construct_from_rational_number#C++

/* Implement matrix NG   Nigel Galloway, February 12., 2013*/class NG_8 : public matrixNG {  private: int a12, a1, a2, a, b12, b1, b2, b, t;           double ab, a1b1, a2b2, a12b12;  const int chooseCFN(){return fabs(a1b1-ab) > fabs(a2b2-ab)? 0 : 1;}  const bool needTerm() {    if (b1==0 and b==0 and b2==0 and b12==0) return false;    if (b==0){cfn = b2==0? 0:1; return true;} else ab = ((double)a)/b;    if (b2==0){cfn = 1; return true;} else a2b2 = ((double)a2)/b2;    if (b1==0){cfn = 0; return true;} else a1b1 = ((double)a1)/b1;    if (b12==0){cfn = chooseCFN(); return true;} else a12b12 = ((double)a12)/b12;    thisTerm = (int)ab;    if (thisTerm==(int)a1b1 and thisTerm==(int)a2b2 and thisTerm==(int)a12b12){      t=a; a=b; b=t-b*thisTerm; t=a1; a1=b1; b1=t-b1*thisTerm; t=a2; a2=b2; b2=t-b2*thisTerm; t=a12; a12=b12; b12=t-b12*thisTerm;      haveTerm = true; return false;    }    cfn = chooseCFN();    return true;  }  void consumeTerm(){if(cfn==0){a=a1; a2=a12; b=b1; b2=b12;} else{a=a2; a1=a12; b=b2; b1=b12;}}  void consumeTerm(int n){    if(cfn==0){t=a; a=a1; a1=t+a1*n; t=a2; a2=a12; a12=t+a12*n; t=b; b=b1; b1=t+b1*n; t=b2; b2=b12; b12=t+b12*n;}    else{t=a; a=a2; a2=t+a2*n; t=a1; a1=a12; a12=t+a12*n; t=b; b=b2; b2=t+b2*n; t=b1; b1=b12; b12=t+b12*n;}  }  public:  NG_8(int a12, int a1, int a2, int a, int b12, int b1, int b2, int b): a12(a12), a1(a1), a2(a2), a(a), b12(b12), b1(b1), b2(b2), b(b){}};

### Testing

[3;7] + [0;2]

int main() {  NG_8 a(0,1,1,0,0,0,0,1);  r2cf n2(22,7);  r2cf n1(1,2);  for(NG n(&a, &n1, &n2); n.moreTerms(); std::cout << n.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;   NG_4 a3(2,1,0,2);  r2cf n3(22,7);  for(NG n(&a3, &n3); n.moreTerms(); std::cout << n.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  return 0;}
Output:
3 1 1 1 4
3 1 1 1 4


[1:5,2] * [3;7]

int main() {  NG_8 b(1,0,0,0,0,0,0,1);  r2cf b1(13,11);  r2cf b2(22,7);  for(NG n(&b, &b1, &b2); n.moreTerms(); std::cout << n.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  for(NG n(&a, &b2, &b1); n.moreTerms(); std::cout << n.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  for(r2cf cf(286,77); cf.moreTerms(); std::cout << cf.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  return 0;}
Output:
3 1 2 2
3 1 2 2


[1:5,2] - [3;7]

int main() {  NG_8 c(0,1,-1,0,0,0,0,1);  r2cf c1(13,11);  r2cf c2(22,7);  for(NG n(&c, &c1, &c2); n.moreTerms(); std::cout << n.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  for(r2cf cf(-151,77); cf.moreTerms(); std::cout << cf.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  return 0;}
Output:
-1 -1 -24 -1 -2
-1 -1 -24 -1 -2


Divide [] by [3;7]

int main() {  NG_8 d(0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0);  r2cf d1(22*22,7*7);  r2cf d2(22,7);  for(NG n(&d, &d1, &d2); n.moreTerms(); std::cout << n.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  return 0;}
Output:
3 7


([0;3,2] + [1;5,2]) * ([0;3,2] - [1;5,2])

int main() {  r2cf a1(2,7);  r2cf a2(13,11);  NG_8 na(0,1,1,0,0,0,0,1);  NG A(&na, &a1, &a2); //[0;3,2] + [1;5,2]  r2cf b1(2,7);  r2cf b2(13,11);  NG_8 nb(0,1,-1,0,0,0,0,1);  NG B(&nb, &b1, &b2); //[0;3,2] - [1;5,2]  NG_8 nc(1,0,0,0,0,0,0,1); //A*B  for(NG n(&nc, &A, &B); n.moreTerms(); std::cout << n.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  for(r2cf cf(2,7); cf.moreTerms(); std::cout << cf.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  for(r2cf cf(13,11); cf.moreTerms(); std::cout << cf.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  for(r2cf cf(-7797,5929); cf.moreTerms(); std::cout << cf.nextTerm() << " ");  std::cout << std::endl;  return 0;}

## Go

Adding to the existing package from the Continued_fraction/Arithmetic/Construct_from_rational_number#Go task, re-uses cf.go and rat.go as given in that task.

File ng8.go:

package cf import "math" // A 2×4 matix://     [ a₁₂   a₁   a₂   a ]//     [ b₁₂   b₁   b₂   b ]//// which when "applied" to two continued fractions N1 and N2// gives a new continued fraction z such that:////         a₁₂ * N1 * N2  +  a₁ * N1  +  a₂ * N2  +  a//     z = -------------------------------------------//         b₁₂ * N1 * N2  +  b₁ * N1  +  b₂ * N2  +  b//// Examples://      NG8{0,1,1,0,  0,0,0,1} gives N1 + N2//      NG8{0,1,-1,0, 0,0,0,1} gives N1 - N2//      NG8{1,0,0,0,  0,0,0,1} gives N1 * N2//      NG8{0,1,0,0,  0,0,1,0} gives N1 / N2//      NG8{21,-15,28,-20, 0,0,0,1} gives 21*N1*N2 -15*N1 +28*N2 -20//                               which is (3*N1 + 4) * (7*N2 - 5)type NG8 struct {	A12, A1, A2, A int64	B12, B1, B2, B int64} // Basic identities as NG8 matrices.var (	NG8Add = NG8{0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1}	NG8Sub = NG8{0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1}	NG8Mul = NG8{1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1}	NG8Div = NG8{0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0}) func (ng *NG8) needsIngest() bool {	if ng.B12 == 0 || ng.B1 == 0 || ng.B2 == 0 || ng.B == 0 {		return true	}	x := ng.A / ng.B	return ng.A1/ng.B1 != x || ng.A2/ng.B2 != x && ng.A12/ng.B12 != x} func (ng *NG8) isDone() bool {	return ng.B12 == 0 && ng.B1 == 0 && ng.B2 == 0 && ng.B == 0} func (ng *NG8) ingestWhich() bool { // true for N1, false for N2	if ng.B == 0 && ng.B2 == 0 {		return true	}	if ng.B == 0 || ng.B2 == 0 {		return false	}	x1 := float64(ng.A1) / float64(ng.B1)	x2 := float64(ng.A2) / float64(ng.B2)	x := float64(ng.A) / float64(ng.B)	return math.Abs(x1-x) > math.Abs(x2-x)} func (ng *NG8) ingest(isN1 bool, t int64) {	if isN1 {		// [ a₁₂   a₁   a₂   a ] becomes [ a₂+a₁₂*t  a+a₁*t  a₁₂  a₁]		// [ b₁₂   b₁   b₂   b ]         [ b₂+b₁₂*t  b+b₁*t  b₁₂  b₁]		ng.A12, ng.A1, ng.A2, ng.A,			ng.B12, ng.B1, ng.B2, ng.B =			ng.A2+ng.A12*t, ng.A+ng.A1*t, ng.A12, ng.A1,			ng.B2+ng.B12*t, ng.B+ng.B1*t, ng.B12, ng.B1	} else {		// [ a₁₂   a₁   a₂   a ] becomes [ a₁+a₁₂*t  a₁₂  a+a₂*t  a₂]		// [ b₁₂   b₁   b₂   b ]         [ b₁+b₁₂*t  b₁₂  b+b₂*t  b₂]		ng.A12, ng.A1, ng.A2, ng.A,			ng.B12, ng.B1, ng.B2, ng.B =			ng.A1+ng.A12*t, ng.A12, ng.A+ng.A2*t, ng.A2,			ng.B1+ng.B12*t, ng.B12, ng.B+ng.B2*t, ng.B2	}} func (ng *NG8) ingestInfinite(isN1 bool) {	if isN1 {		// [ a₁₂   a₁   a₂   a ] becomes [ a₁₂  a₁  a₁₂  a₁ ]		// [ b₁₂   b₁   b₂   b ]         [ b₁₂  b₁  b₁₂  b₁ ]		ng.A2, ng.A, ng.B2, ng.B =			ng.A12, ng.A1,			ng.B12, ng.B1	} else {		// [ a₁₂   a₁   a₂   a ] becomes [ a₁₂  a₁₂  a₂  a₂ ]		// [ b₁₂   b₁   b₂   b ]         [ b₁₂  b₁₂  b₂  b₂ ]		ng.A1, ng.A, ng.B1, ng.B =			ng.A12, ng.A2,			ng.B12, ng.B2	}} func (ng *NG8) egest(t int64) {	// [ a₁₂   a₁   a₂   a ] becomes [     b₁₂       b₁       b₂      b   ]	// [ b₁₂   b₁   b₂   b ]         [ a₁₂-b₁₂*t  a₁-b₁*t  a₂-b₂*t  a-b*t ]	ng.A12, ng.A1, ng.A2, ng.A,		ng.B12, ng.B1, ng.B2, ng.B =		ng.B12, ng.B1, ng.B2, ng.B,		ng.A12-ng.B12*t, ng.A1-ng.B1*t, ng.A2-ng.B2*t, ng.A-ng.B*t} // ApplyTo "applies" the matrix ng to the continued fractions// N1 and N2, returning the resulting continued fraction.// After ingesting limit terms without any output terms the resulting// continued fraction is terminated.func (ng NG8) ApplyTo(N1, N2 ContinuedFraction, limit int) ContinuedFraction {	return func() NextFn {		next1, next2 := N1(), N2()		done := false		sinceEgest := 0		return func() (int64, bool) {			if done {				return 0, false			}			for ng.needsIngest() {				sinceEgest++				if sinceEgest > limit {					done = true					return 0, false				}				isN1 := ng.ingestWhich()				next := next2				if isN1 {					next = next1				}				if t, ok := next(); ok {					ng.ingest(isN1, t)				} else {					ng.ingestInfinite(isN1)				}			}			sinceEgest = 0			t := ng.A / ng.B			ng.egest(t)			done = ng.isDone()			return t, true		}	}}

File ng8_test.go:

package cf import "fmt" func ExampleNG8() {	cases := [...]struct {		op     string		r1, r2 Rat		ng     NG8	}{		{"+", Rat{22, 7}, Rat{1, 2}, NG8Add},		{"*", Rat{13, 11}, Rat{22, 7}, NG8Mul},		{"-", Rat{13, 11}, Rat{22, 7}, NG8Sub},		{"/", Rat{22 * 22, 7 * 7}, Rat{22, 7}, NG8Div},	}	for _, tc := range cases {		n1 := tc.r1.AsContinuedFraction()		n2 := tc.r2.AsContinuedFraction()		z := tc.ng.ApplyTo(n1, n2, 1000)		fmt.Printf("%v %s %v is %v %v %v gives %v\n",			tc.r1, tc.op, tc.r2,			tc.ng, n1, n2, z,		)	} 	z := NG8Mul.ApplyTo(Sqrt2, Sqrt2, 1000)	fmt.Println("√2 * √2 =", z) 	// Output:	// 22/7 + 1/2 is {0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1} [3; 7] [0; 2] gives [3; 1, 1, 1, 4]	// 13/11 * 22/7 is {1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1} [1; 5, 2] [3; 7] gives [3; 1, 2, 2]	// 13/11 - 22/7 is {0 1 -1 0 0 0 0 1} [1; 5, 2] [3; 7] gives [-1; -1, -24, -1, -2]	// 484/49 / 22/7 is {0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0} [9; 1, 7, 6] [3; 7] gives [3; 7]	// √2 * √2 = [1; 0, 1]}
Output:

(Note, [1; 0, 1] = 1 + 1 / (0 + 1/1 ) = 2, so the answer is correct, it should however be normalised to the more reasonable form of [2].)

22/7 + 1/2 is {0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1} [3; 7] [0; 2] gives [3; 1, 1, 1, 4]
13/11 * 22/7 is {1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1} [1; 5, 2] [3; 7] gives [3; 1, 2, 2]
13/11 - 22/7 is {0 1 -1 0 0 0 0 1} [1; 5, 2] [3; 7] gives [-1; -1, -24, -1, -2]
484/49 / 22/7 is {0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0} [9; 1, 7, 6] [3; 7] gives [3; 7]
√2 * √2 = [1; 0, 1]


## Julia

Translation of: Kotlin
abstract type MatrixNG end mutable struct NG4 <: MatrixNG    cfn::Int    thisterm::Int    haveterm::Bool    a1::Int    a::Int    b1::Int    b::Int    NG4(a1, a, b1, b) = new(0, 0, false, a1, a, b1, b)end mutable struct NG8 <: MatrixNG    cfn::Int    thisterm::Int    haveterm::Bool    a12::Int    a1::Int    a2::Int    a::Int    b12::Int    b1::Int    b2::Int    b::Int    NG8(a12, a1, a2, a, b12, b1, b2, b) = new(0, 0, false, a12, a1, a2, a, b12, b1, b2, b)end function needterm(m::NG4)::Bool    m.b1 == m.b == 0 && return false    (m.b1 == 0 || m.b == 0) && return true    (m.thisterm = m.a ÷ m.b) != m.a1 ÷ m.b1 && return true    m.a, m.b = m.b, m.a - m.b * m.thisterm    m.a1, m.b1, m.haveterm = m.b1, m.a1 - m.b1 * m.thisterm, true    return falseend consumeterm(m::NG4) = (m.a = m.a1; m.b = m.b1)function consumeterm(m::NG4, n)    m.a, m.a1 = m.a1, m.a + m.a1 * n    m.b, m.b1 = m.b1, m.b + m.b1 * nend function needterm(m::NG8)::Bool    m.b1 == m.b == m.b2 == m.b12 == 0 && return false    if m.b == 0        m.cfn = m.b2 == 0 ? 0 : 1        return true    elseif m.b2 == 0        m.cfn = 1        return true    elseif m.b1 == 0        m.cfn = 0        return true    end    ab = m.a / m.b    a1b1 = m.a1 / m.b1    a2b2 = m.a2 / m.b2     if m.b12 == 0        m.cfn = abs(a1b1 - ab) > abs(a2b2 - ab) ? 0 : 1        return true    end    m.thisterm = m.a ÷ m.b    if m.thisterm == m.a1 ÷ m.b1 == m.a2 ÷ m.b2 == m.a12 ÷ m.b12        m.a, m.b = m.b, m.a - m.b * m.thisterm        m.a1, m.b1 = m.b1, m.a1 - m.b1 * m.thisterm        m.a2, m.b2 = m.b2, m.a2 - m.b2 * m.thisterm        m.a12, m.b12, m.haveterm = m.b12, m.a12 - m.b12 * m.thisterm, true        return false    end    m.cfn = abs(a1b1 - ab) > abs(a2b2 - ab) ? 0 : 1    return trueend function consumeterm(m::NG8)    if m.cfn == 0        m.a, m.a2 = m.a1, m.a12        m.b, m.b2 = m.b1, m.b12    else        m.a, m.a1 = m.a2, m.a12        m.b, m.b1 = m.b2, m.b12    endendfunction consumeterm(m::NG8, n)    if m.cfn == 0        m.a, m.a1 = m.a1, m.a + m.a1 * n        m.a2, m.a12 = m.a12, m.a2 + m.a12 * n        m.b, m.b1 = m.b1, m.b + m.b1 * n        m.b2, m.b12 = m.b12, m.b2 + m.b12 * n    else        m.a, m.a2 = m.a2, m.a + m.a2 * n        m.a1, m.a12 = m.a12, m.a1 + m.a12 * n        m.b, m.b2 = m.b2, m.b + m.b2 * n        m.b1, m.b12 = m.b12, m.b1 + m.b12 * n    endend abstract type ContinuedFraction end mutable struct R2cf <: ContinuedFraction    n1::Int    n2::Intend function nextterm(x::R2cf)    term = x.n1 ÷ x.n2    x.n1, x.n2 = x.n2, x.n1 - term * x.n2    return termend moreterms(x::R2cf) = abs(x.n2) > 0 mutable struct NG <: ContinuedFraction    ng::MatrixNG    n::Vector{ContinuedFraction}endNG(ng, n1::ContinuedFraction) = NG(ng, [n1])NG(ng, n1::ContinuedFraction, n2) = NG(ng, [n1, n2])nextterm(x::NG) = (x.ng.haveterm = false; x.ng.thisterm) function moreterms(x::NG)::Bool    while needterm(x.ng)        if moreterms(x.n[x.ng.cfn + 1])            consumeterm(x.ng, nextterm(x.n[x.ng.cfn + 1]))        else            consumeterm(x.ng)        end    end    return x.ng.havetermend function testcfs()    function test(desc, cfs)        println("TESTING -> $desc") for cf in cfs while moreterms(cf) print(nextterm(cf), " ") end println() end println() end a = NG8(0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) n2 = R2cf(22, 7) n1 = R2cf(1, 2) a3 = NG4(2, 1, 0, 2) n3 = R2cf(22, 7) test("[3;7] + [0;2]", [NG(a, n1, n2), NG(a3, n3)]) b = NG8(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) b1 = R2cf(13, 11) b2 = R2cf(22, 7) test("[1;5,2] * [3;7]", [NG(b, b1, b2), R2cf(286, 77)]) c = NG8(0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) c1 = R2cf(13, 11) c2 = R2cf(22, 7) test("[1;5,2] - [3;7]", [NG(c, c1, c2), R2cf(-151, 77)]) d = NG8(0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0) d1 = R2cf(22 * 22, 7 * 7) d2 = R2cf(22, 7) test("Divide [] by [3;7]", [NG(d, d1, d2)]) na = NG8(0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) a1 = R2cf(2, 7) a2 = R2cf(13, 11) aa = NG(na, a1, a2) nb = NG8(0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) b3 = R2cf(2, 7) b4 = R2cf(13, 11) bb = NG(nb, b3, b4) nc = NG8(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) desc = "([0;3,2] + [1;5,2]) * ([0;3,2] - [1;5,2])" test(desc, [NG(nc, aa, bb), R2cf(-7797, 5929)])end testcfs()  Output: TESTING -> [3;7] + [0;2] 3 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 1 4 TESTING -> [1;5,2] * [3;7] 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 TESTING -> [1;5,2] - [3;7] -1 -1 -24 -1 -2 -1 -1 -24 -1 -2 TESTING -> Divide [] by [3;7] 3 7 TESTING -> ([0;3,2] + [1;5,2]) * ([0;3,2] - [1;5,2]) -1 -3 -5 -1 -2 -1 -26 -3 -1 -3 -5 -1 -2 -1 -26 -3  ## Kotlin Translation of: C++ The C++ entry uses a number of classes which have been coded in other "Continued Fraction" tasks. I've pulled all these into my Kotlin translation and unified the tests so that the whole thing can, hopefully, be understood and run as a single program. // version 1.2.10 import kotlin.math.abs abstract class MatrixNG { var cfn = 0 var thisTerm = 0 var haveTerm = false abstract fun consumeTerm() abstract fun consumeTerm(n: Int) abstract fun needTerm(): Boolean} class NG4( var a1: Int, var a: Int, var b1: Int, var b: Int) : MatrixNG() { private var t = 0 override fun needTerm(): Boolean { if (b1 == 0 && b == 0) return false if (b1 == 0 || b == 0) return true thisTerm = a / b if (thisTerm == a1 / b1) { t = a; a = b; b = t - b * thisTerm t = a1; a1 = b1; b1 = t - b1 * thisTerm haveTerm = true return false } return true } override fun consumeTerm() { a = a1 b = b1 } override fun consumeTerm(n: Int) { t = a; a = a1; a1 = t + a1 * n t = b; b = b1; b1 = t + b1 * n }} class NG8( var a12: Int, var a1: Int, var a2: Int, var a: Int, var b12: Int, var b1: Int, var b2: Int, var b: Int) : MatrixNG() { private var t = 0 private var ab = 0.0 private var a1b1 = 0.0 private var a2b2 = 0.0 private var a12b12 = 0.0 fun chooseCFN() = if (abs(a1b1 - ab) > abs(a2b2-ab)) 0 else 1 override fun needTerm(): Boolean { if (b1 == 0 && b == 0 && b2 == 0 && b12 == 0) return false if (b == 0) { cfn = if (b2 == 0) 0 else 1 return true } else ab = a.toDouble() / b if (b2 == 0) { cfn = 1 return true } else a2b2 = a2.toDouble() / b2 if (b1 == 0) { cfn = 0 return true } else a1b1 = a1.toDouble() / b1 if (b12 == 0) { cfn = chooseCFN() return true } else a12b12 = a12.toDouble() / b12 thisTerm = ab.toInt() if (thisTerm == a1b1.toInt() && thisTerm == a2b2.toInt() && thisTerm == a12b12.toInt()) { t = a; a = b; b = t - b * thisTerm t = a1; a1 = b1; b1 = t - b1 * thisTerm t = a2; a2 = b2; b2 = t - b2 * thisTerm t = a12; a12 = b12; b12 = t - b12 * thisTerm haveTerm = true return false } cfn = chooseCFN() return true } override fun consumeTerm() { if (cfn == 0) { a = a1; a2 = a12 b = b1; b2 = b12 } else { a = a2; a1 = a12 b = b2; b1 = b12 } } override fun consumeTerm(n: Int) { if (cfn == 0) { t = a; a = a1; a1 = t + a1 * n t = a2; a2 = a12; a12 = t + a12 * n t = b; b = b1; b1 = t + b1 * n t = b2; b2 = b12; b12 = t + b12 * n } else { t = a; a = a2; a2 = t + a2 * n t = a1; a1 = a12; a12 = t + a12 * n t = b; b = b2; b2 = t + b2 * n t = b1; b1 = b12; b12 = t + b12 * n } }} interface ContinuedFraction { fun nextTerm(): Int fun moreTerms(): Boolean} class R2cf(var n1: Int, var n2: Int) : ContinuedFraction { override fun nextTerm(): Int { val thisTerm = n1 /n2 val t2 = n2 n2 = n1 - thisTerm * n2 n1 = t2 return thisTerm } override fun moreTerms() = abs(n2) > 0} class NG : ContinuedFraction { val ng: MatrixNG val n: List<ContinuedFraction> constructor(ng: NG4, n1: ContinuedFraction) { this.ng = ng n = listOf(n1) } constructor(ng: NG8, n1: ContinuedFraction, n2: ContinuedFraction) { this.ng = ng n = listOf(n1, n2) } override fun nextTerm(): Int { ng.haveTerm = false return ng.thisTerm } override fun moreTerms(): Boolean { while (ng.needTerm()) { if (n[ng.cfn].moreTerms()) ng.consumeTerm(n[ng.cfn].nextTerm()) else ng.consumeTerm() } return ng.haveTerm }} fun test(desc: String, vararg cfs: ContinuedFraction) { println("TESTING ->$desc")    for (cf in cfs) {        while (cf.moreTerms()) print ("${cf.nextTerm()} ") println() } println()} fun main(args: Array<String>) { val a = NG8(0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) val n2 = R2cf(22, 7) val n1 = R2cf(1, 2) val a3 = NG4(2, 1, 0, 2) val n3 = R2cf(22, 7) test("[3;7] + [0;2]", NG(a, n1, n2), NG(a3, n3)) val b = NG8(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) val b1 = R2cf(13, 11) val b2 = R2cf(22, 7) test("[1;5,2] * [3;7]", NG(b, b1, b2), R2cf(286, 77)) val c = NG8(0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) val c1 = R2cf(13, 11) val c2 = R2cf(22, 7) test("[1;5,2] - [3;7]", NG(c, c1, c2), R2cf(-151, 77)) val d = NG8(0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0) val d1 = R2cf(22 * 22, 7 * 7) val d2 = R2cf(22,7) test("Divide [] by [3;7]", NG(d, d1, d2)) val na = NG8(0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) val a1 = R2cf(2, 7) val a2 = R2cf(13, 11) val aa = NG(na, a1, a2) val nb = NG8(0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) val b3 = R2cf(2, 7) val b4 = R2cf(13, 11) val bb = NG(nb, b3, b4) val nc = NG8(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) val desc = "([0;3,2] + [1;5,2]) * ([0;3,2] - [1;5,2])" test(desc, NG(nc, aa, bb), R2cf(-7797, 5929))} Output: TESTING -> [3;7] + [0;2] 3 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 1 4 TESTING -> [1;5,2] * [3;7] 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 TESTING -> [1;5,2] - [3;7] -1 -1 -24 -1 -2 -1 -1 -24 -1 -2 TESTING -> Divide [] by [3;7] 3 7 TESTING -> ([0;3,2] + [1;5,2]) * ([0;3,2] - [1;5,2]) -1 -3 -5 -1 -2 -1 -26 -3 -1 -3 -5 -1 -2 -1 -26 -3  ## Nim Translation of: Kotlin import strformat #################################################################################################### type MatrixNG = ref object of RootObj cfn: int thisTerm: int haveTerm: bool method consumeTerm(m: MatrixNG) {.base.} = raise newException(CatchableError, "Method without implementation override") method consumeTerm(m: MatrixNG; n: int) {.base.} = raise newException(CatchableError, "Method without implementation override") method needTerm(m: MatrixNG): bool {.base.} = raise newException(CatchableError, "Method without implementation override") #################################################################################################### type NG4 = ref object of MatrixNG a1, a, b1, b: int proc newNG4(a1, a, b1, b: int): NG4 = NG4(a1: a1, a: a, b1: b1, b: b) method needTerm(ng: NG4): bool = if ng.b1 == 0 and ng.b == 0: return false if ng.b1 == 0 or ng.b == 0: return true ng.thisTerm = ng.a div ng.b if ng.thisTerm == ng.a1 div ng.b1: ng.a -= ng.b * ng.thisTerm; swap ng.a, ng.b ng.a1 -= ng.b1 * ng.thisTerm; swap ng.a1, ng.b1 ng.haveTerm = true return false return true method consumeTerm(ng: NG4) = ng.a = ng.a1 ng.b = ng.b1 method consumeTerm(ng: NG4; n: int) = ng.a += ng.a1 * n; swap ng.a, ng.a1 ng.b += ng.b1 * n; swap ng.b, ng.b1 #################################################################################################### type NG8 = ref object of MatrixNG a12, a1, a2, a: int b12, b1, b2, b: int proc newNG8(a12, a1, a2, a, b12, b1, b2, b: int): NG8 = NG8(a12: a12, a1: a1, a2: a2, a: a, b12: b12, b1: b1, b2: b2, b: b) method needTerm(ng: NG8): bool = if ng.b1 == 0 and ng.b == 0 and ng.b2 == 0 and ng.b12 == 0: return false if ng.b == 0: ng.cfn = ord(ng.b2 != 0) return true if ng.b2 == 0: ng. cfn = 1 return true if ng.b1 == 0: ng.cfn = 0 return true let ab = ng.a / ng.b a1b1 = ng.a1 / ng.b1 a2b2 = ng.a2 / ng.b2 if ng.b12 == 0: ng.cfn = ord(abs(a1b1 - ab) <= abs(a2b2 - ab)) return true ng.thisTerm = int(ab) if ng.thisTerm == int(a1b1) and ng.thisTerm == int(a2b2) and ng.thisTerm == ng.a12 div ng.b12: ng.a -= ng.b * ng.thisTerm; swap ng.a, ng.b ng.a1 -= ng.b1 * ng.thisTerm; swap ng.a1, ng.b1 ng.a2 -= ng.b2 * ng.thisTerm; swap ng.a2, ng.b2 ng.a12 -= ng.b12 * ng.thisTerm; swap ng.a12, ng.b12 ng.haveTerm = true return false ng.cfn = ord(abs(a1b1 - ab) <= abs(a2b2 - ab)) result = true method consumeTerm(ng: NG8) = if ng.cfn == 0: ng.a = ng.a1 ng.a2 = ng.a12 ng.b = ng.b1 ng.b2 = ng.b12 else: ng.a = ng.a2 ng.a1 = ng.a12 ng.b = ng.b2 ng.b1 = ng.b12 method consumeTerm(ng: NG8; n: int) = if ng.cfn == 0: ng.a += ng.a1 * n; swap ng.a, ng.a1 ng.a2 += ng.a12 * n; swap ng.a2, ng.a12 ng.b += ng.b1 * n; swap ng.b, ng.b1 ng.b2 += ng.b12 * n; swap ng.b2, ng.b12 else: ng.a += ng.a2 * n; swap ng.a, ng.a2 ng.a1 += ng.a12 * n; swap ng.a1, ng.a12 ng.b += ng.b2 * n; swap ng.b, ng.b2 ng.b1 += ng.b12 * n; swap ng.b1, ng.b12 #################################################################################################### type ContinuedFraction = ref object of RootObj method nextTerm(cf: ContinuedFraction): int {.base.} = raise newException(CatchableError, "Method without implementation override") method moreTerms(cf: ContinuedFraction): bool {.base.} = raise newException(CatchableError, "Method without implementation override") #################################################################################################### type R2Cf = ref object of ContinuedFraction n1, n2: int proc newR2Cf(n1, n2: int): R2Cf = R2Cf(n1: n1, n2: n2) method nextTerm(x: R2Cf): int = result = x.n1 div x.n2 x.n1 -= result * x.n2 swap x.n1, x.n2 method moreTerms(x: R2Cf): bool = abs(x.n2) > 0 #################################################################################################### type NG = ref object of ContinuedFraction ng: MatrixNG n: seq[ContinuedFraction] proc newNG(ng: NG4; n1: ContinuedFraction): NG = NG(ng: ng, n: @[n1]) proc newNG(ng: NG8; n1, n2: ContinuedFraction): NG = NG(ng: ng, n: @[n1, n2]) method nextTerm(x: NG): int = x.ng.haveTerm = false result = x.ng.thisTerm method moreTerms(x: NG): bool = while x.ng.needTerm(): if x.n[x.ng.cfn].moreTerms(): x.ng.consumeTerm(x.n[x.ng.cfn].nextTerm()) else: x.ng.consumeTerm() result = x.ng.haveTerm #——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— when isMainModule: proc test(desc: string; cfs: varargs[ContinuedFraction]) = echo &"TESTING → {desc}" for cf in cfs: while cf.moreTerms(): stdout.write &"{cf.nextTerm()} " echo() echo() let a = newNG8(0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) n2 = newR2Cf(22, 7) n1 = newR2Cf(1, 2) a3 = newNG4(2, 1, 0, 2) n3 = newR2cf(22, 7) test("[3;7] + [0;2]", newNG(a, n1, n2), newNG(a3, n3)) let b = newNG8(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) b1 = newR2cf(13, 11) b2 = newR2cf(22, 7) test("[1;5,2] * [3;7]", newNG(b, b1, b2), newR2cf(286, 77)) let c = newNG8(0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) c1 = newR2cf(13, 11) c2 = newR2cf(22, 7) test("[1;5,2] - [3;7]", newNG(c, c1, c2), newR2cf(-151, 77)) let d = newNG8(0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0) d1 = newR2cf(22 * 22, 7 * 7) d2 = newR2cf(22,7) test("Divide [] by [3;7]", newNG(d, d1, d2)) let na = newNG8(0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) a1 = newR2cf(2, 7) a2 = newR2cf(13, 11) aa = newNG(na, a1, a2) nb = newNG8(0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) b3 = newR2cf(2, 7) b4 = newR2cf(13, 11) bb = newNG(nb, b3, b4) nc = newNG8(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) desc = "([0;3,2] + [1;5,2]) * ([0;3,2] - [1;5,2])" test(desc, newNG(nc, aa, bb), newR2cf(-7797, 5929)) Output: TESTING → [3;7] + [0;2] 3 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 1 4 TESTING → [1;5,2] * [3;7] 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 TESTING → [1;5,2] - [3;7] -1 -1 -24 -1 -2 -1 -1 -24 -1 -2 TESTING → Divide [] by [3;7] 3 7 TESTING → ([0;3,2] + [1;5,2]) * ([0;3,2] - [1;5,2]) -1 -3 -5 -1 -2 -1 -26 -3 -1 -3 -5 -1 -2 -1 -26 -3  ## Phix Library: Phix/Class Library: Phix/mpfr (self-contained) class full_matrix -- -- Used by apply_full_matrix() -- Note that each instance of full_matrix should be discarded after use. -- integer a12, a1, a2, a, b12, b1, b2, b function need_term() if b12==0 or b1==0 or b2==0 or b==0 then return true end if atom ab = a/b return ab!=a1/b1 or ab!=a1/b2 or ab!=a12/b12 end function function which_term() -- returns true for cf1, false for cf2 if b==0 and b2==0 then return true end if if b==0 or b2==0 then return false end if if b1==0 then return true end if atom ab = a/b return abs(a1/b1-ab) > abs(a2/b2-ab) end function function next_term() integer t = floor(a/b) sequence newas = {b12,b1,b2,b}, newbs = {a12-b12*t,a1-b1*t,a2-b2*t,a-b*t} {a12,a1,a2,a} = newas {b12,b1,b2,b} = newbs return t end function procedure in_term(bool is_cf1, object t={}) if integer(t) then sequence newas = iff(is_cf1?{a2+a12*t, a+a1*t, a12, a1} :{a1+a12*t, a12, a+a2*t, a2}), newbs = iff(is_cf1?{b2+b12*t, b+b1*t, b12, b1} :{b1+b12*t, b12, b+b2*t, b2}) {a12, a1, a2, a} = newas {b12, b1, b2, b} = newbs elsif is_cf1 then {a2, a, b2, b} = {a12, a1, b12, b1} else {a1, a, b1, b} = {a12, a2, b12, b2} end if end procedure function done() return b12==0 and b1==0 and b2==0 and b==0 end function end class function apply_full_matrix(sequence ctrl, cf1, cf2) -- -- If ctrl is {a12, a1, a2, a, -- b12, b1, b2, b} -- -- Then the result of apply_full_matrix(ctrl,cf1,cf2) would be -- -- (a12*cf1*cf2 + a1*cf1 + a2*cf2 + a) -- ----------------------------------- -- (b12*cf1*cf2 + b1*cf1 + b2*cf2 + b) -- -- For instance: -- { 0, 1, 1, 0, calculates cf1 + cf2 -- 0, 0, 0, 1} (divided by 1) -- -- { 0, 1,-1, 0, calculates cf1 - cf2 -- 0, 0, 0, 1} (divided by 1) -- -- { 1, 0, 0, 0, calculates cf1 * cf2 -- 0, 0, 0, 1} (divided by 1) -- -- { 0, 1, 0, 0, calculates cf1 -- 0, 0, 1, 0} divided by cf2 -- full_matrix fm = new(ctrl) sequence res = {} integer l1 = length(cf1), dx1=1, l2 = length(cf2), dx2=1 while true do if fm.need_term() then bool is_cf1 = fm.which_term() object t = {} if is_cf1 then if dx1<=l1 then t = cf1[dx1] dx1 += 1 end if else if dx2<=l2 then t = cf2[dx2] dx2 += 1 end if end if fm.in_term(is_cf1,t) else res &= fm.next_term() end if if fm.done() then exit end if end while return res end function function r2cf(sequence rat, integer count=20) sequence s = {} atom {num,den} = rat while den!=0 and length(s)<count do s &= trunc(num/den) {num,den} = {den,num-s[$]*den}
end while
return s
end function

function cf2s(sequence cf)
sequence s = join(apply(cf,sprint),",") -- eg "1,5,2"
return "["&substitute(s,",",";",1)&"]"  -- => "[1;5,2]"
end function

include mpfr.e

function cf2r(sequence cf)
mpq res = mpq_init(), -- 0/1
cfn = mpq_init()
for n=length(cf) to 1 by -1 do
mpq_set_si(cfn,cf[n])
if n=1 then exit end if
mpq_inv(res,res)
end for
mpz num = mpz_init(),
den = mpz_init()
mpq_get_num(num,res)
mpq_get_den(den,res)
mpfr x = mpfr_init()
mpfr_set_q(x,res)
string xs = mpfr_sprintf("%.15Rf",x),
ns = mpz_get_str(num),
ds = mpz_get_str(den),
s = sprintf("%s (%s/%s)",{xs,ns,ds})
return s
end function

constant fmAdd = { 0, 1, 1, 0,  0, 0, 0, 1},
fmSub = { 0, 1,-1, 0,  0, 0, 0, 1},
fmMul = { 1, 0, 0, 0,  0, 0, 0, 1},
fmDiv = { 0, 1, 0, 0,  0, 0, 1, 0},
{"-",{13,11},{22,7},fmSub,13/11-22/7},
{"*",{13,11},{22,7},fmMul,13/11*22/7},
{"/",{22*22,7*7},{22,7},fmDiv,22/7}}

for i=1 to length(tests) do
{string op, sequence rat1, sequence rat2, sequence m, atom eres2} = tests[i]
sequence cf1 = r2cf(rat1),
cf2 = r2cf(rat2),
cfr = apply_full_matrix(m,cf1,cf2)
string bop = sprintf("%s %s %s",{cf2s(cf1),op,cf2s(cf2)})
printf(1,"%s is %s -> %s (est %g)\n",{bop,cf2s(cfr),cf2r(cfr),eres2})
end for

Output:
[3;7] + [0;2] is [3;1,1,1,4] -> 3.642857142857143 (51/14) (est 3.64286)
[1;5,2] - [3;7] is [-2;25,1,2] -> -1.961038961038961 (-151/77) (est -1.96104)
[1;5,2] * [3;7] is [3;1,2,2] -> 3.714285714285714 (26/7) (est 3.71429)
[9;1,7,6] / [3;7] is [3;7] -> 3.142857142857143 (22/7) (est 3.14286)


## Raku

(formerly Perl 6)

Works with: Rakudo version 2016.01

The NG2 object can work with infinitely long continued fractions, it does lazy evaluation. By default, it is limited to returning the first 30 terms. Pass in a limit value if you want something other than default.

class NG2 {    has ( $!a12,$!a1, $!a2,$!a, $!b12,$!b1, $!b2,$!b );     # Public methods    method operator($!a12,$!a1, $!a2,$!a, $!b12,$!b1, $!b2,$!b ) { self }     method apply(@cf1, @cf2, :$limit = 30) { my @cfs = [@cf1], [@cf2]; gather { while @cfs[0] or @cfs[1] { my$term;                (take $term if$term = self!extract) unless self!needterm;                my $from = self!from;$from = @cfs[$from] ??$from !! $from +^ 1; self!inject($from, @cfs[$from].shift); } take self!drain while$!b;        }[ ^$limit ].grep: *.defined; } # Private methods method !inject ($n, $t) { multi sub xform(0,$t, $x12,$x1, $x2,$x) { $x2 +$x12 * $t,$x + $x1 *$t, $x12,$x1 }        multi sub xform(1, $t,$x12, $x1,$x2, $x) {$x1 + $x12 *$t, $x12,$x + $x2 *$t, $x2 } ($!a12, $!a1,$!a2, $!a ) = xform($n, $t,$!a12, $!a1,$!a2, $!a ); ($!b12, $!b1,$!b2, $!b ) = xform($n, $t,$!b12, $!b1,$!b2, $!b ); } method !extract { my$t = $!a div$!b;        ( $!a12,$!a1, $!a2,$!a, $!b12,$!b1, $!b2,$!b ) =          $!b12,$!b1, $!b2,$!b,                                  $!a12 -$!b12 * $t,$!a1 - $!b1 *$t,                                               $!a2 -$!b2 * $t,$!a - $!b *$t;        $t; } method !from { return$!b == $!b2 == 0 ?? 0 !!$!b == 0 || $!b2 == 0 ?? 1 !! abs($!a1*$!b*$!b2 - $!a*$!b1*$!b2) > abs($!a2*$!b*$!b1 - $!a*$!b1*$!b2) ?? 0 !! 1; } method !needterm { so !([&&]$!b12, $!b1,$!b2, $!b) or$!a/$!b !=$!a1/$!b1 !=$!a2/$!b2 !=$!a12/$!b1; } method !noterms($which) {        $which ?? (($!a1, $!a,$!b1, $!b ) =$!a12, $!a2,$!b12, $!b2) !! (($!a2, $!a,$!b2, $!b ) =$!a12, $!a1,$!b12, $!b1); } method !drain { self!noterms(self!from) if self!needterm; self!extract; }} sub r2cf(Rat$x is copy) { # Rational to continued fraction    gather loop {    $x -= take$x.floor;    last unless $x;$x = 1 / $x; }} sub cf2r(@a) { # continued fraction to Rational my$x = @a[* - 1].FatRat; # Use FatRats for arbitrary precision    $x = @a[$_- 1] + 1 / $x for reverse 1 ..^ @a;$x} # format continued fraction for pretty printingsub ppcf(@cf) { "[{ @cf.join(',').subst(',',';') }]" } # format Rational for pretty printing. Use FatRats for arbitrary precisionsub pprat($a) {$a.FatRat.denominator == 1 ?? $a !!$a.FatRat.nude.join('/') } my %ops = ( # convenience hash of NG matrix operators    '+' => (0,1,1,0,0,0,0,1),    '-' => (0,1,-1,0,0,0,0,1),    '*' => (1,0,0,0,0,0,0,1),    '/' => (0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0)); sub test_NG2 ($rat1,$op, $rat2) { my @cf1 =$rat1.&r2cf;    my @cf2 = $rat2.&r2cf; my @result = NG2.new.operator(|%ops{$op}).apply( @cf1, @cf2 );    say "{$rat1.&pprat}$op {$rat2.&pprat} => {@cf1.&ppcf}$op ",        "{@cf2.&ppcf} = {@result.&ppcf} => {@result.&cf2r.&pprat}\n";} # Testingtest_NG2(|$_) for [ 22/7, '+', 1/2 ], [ 23/11, '*', 22/7 ], [ 13/11, '-', 22/7 ], [ 484/49, '/', 22/7 ]; # Sometimes you may want to limit the terms in the continued fraction to something other than default.# Here a lazy infinite continued fraction for √2, then multiply it by itself. We'll limit the result# to 6 terms for brevity’s' sake. We'll then convert that continued fraction back to an arbitrary precision# FatRat Rational number. (Raku stores FatRats internally as a ratio of two arbitrarily long integers.# We need to exercise a little caution because they can eat up all of your memory if allowed to grow unchecked,# hence the limit of 6 terms in continued fraction.) We'll then convert that number to a normal precision# Rat, which is accurate to the nearest 1 / 2^64, say "√2 expressed as a continued fraction, then squared: ";my @root2 = lazy flat 1, 2 xx *;my @result = NG2.new.operator(|%ops{'*'}).apply( @root2, @root2, limit => 6 );say @root2.&ppcf, "² = \n";say @result.&ppcf;say "\nConverted back to an arbitrary (ludicrous) precision Rational: ";say @result.&cf2r.nude.join(" /\n");say "\nCoerced to a standard precision Rational: ", @result.&cf2r.Num.Rat; Output: 22/7 + 1/2 => [3;7] + [0;2] = [3;1,1,1,4] => 51/14 23/11 * 22/7 => [2;11] * [3;7] = [6;1,1,3] => 46/7 13/11 - 22/7 => [1;5,2] - [3;7] = [-2;25,1,2] => -151/77 484/49 / 22/7 => [9;1,7,6] / [3;7] = [3;7] => 22/7 √2 expressed as a continued fraction, then squared: [1;2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,...]² = [1;1,-58451683124983302025,-1927184886226364356176,-65467555105469489418600,-2223969688699736275876224] Converted back to an arbitrary (ludicrous) precision Rational: 32802382178012409621354320392819425499699206367450594986122623570838188983519955166754002 / 16401191089006204810536863200564985394427741343927508600629139291039556821665755787817601 Coerced to a standard precision Rational: 2 ## Tcl This uses the Generator class, R2CF class and printcf procedure from the r2cf task. Works with: Tcl version 8.6 oo::class create NG2 { variable a b a1 b1 a2 b2 a12 b12 cf1 cf2 superclass Generator constructor {args} { lassign$args a12 a1 a2 a b12 b1 b2 b	next    }    method operands {N1 N2} {	set cf1 $N1 set cf2$N2	return [self]    }     method Ingress1 t {	lassign [list [expr {$a2+$a12*$t}] [expr {$a+$a1*$t}] $a12$a1 \		      [expr {$b2+$b12*$t}] [expr {$b+$b1*$t}] $b12$b1] \	    a12 a1 a2 a b12 b1 b2 b    }    method Exhaust1 {} {	lassign [list $a12$a1 $a12$a1 $b12$b1 $b12$b1] \	    a12 a1 a2 a b12 b1 b2 b    }    method Ingress2 t {	lassign [list [expr {$a1+$a12*$t}]$a12 [expr {$a+$a2*$t}]$a2 \		      [expr {$b1+$b12*$t}]$b12 [expr {$b+$b2*$t}]$b2] \	    a12 a1 a2 a b12 b1 b2 b    }    method Exhaust2 {} {	lassign [list $a12$a12 $a2$a2 $b12$b12 $b2$b2] \	    a12 a1 a2 a b12 b1 b2 b    }    method Egress {} {	set t [expr {$a/$b}]	lassign [list $b12$b1 $b2$b \		    [expr {$a12 -$b12*$t}] [expr {$a1 - $b1*$t}] \		    [expr {$a2 -$b2*$t}] [expr {$a - $b*$t}]] \	    a12 a1 a2 a b12 b1 b2 b	return $t } method DoIngress1 {} { try {tailcall my Ingress1 [$cf1]} on break {} {}	oo::objdefine [self] forward DoIngress1 my Exhaust1	set cf1 ""	tailcall my Exhaust1    }    method DoIngress2 {} {	try {tailcall my Ingress2 [$cf2]} on break {} {} oo::objdefine [self] forward DoIngress2 my Exhaust2 set cf2 "" tailcall my Exhaust2 } method Ingress {} { if {$b==0} {	    if {$b2 == 0} { tailcall my DoIngress1 } else { tailcall my DoIngress2 } } if {!$b2} {	    tailcall my DoIngress2	}	if {!$b1} { tailcall my DoIngress1 } if {[my FirstSource?]} { tailcall my DoIngress1 } else { tailcall my DoIngress2 } } method FirstSource? {} { expr {abs($a1*$b*$b2 - $a*$b1*$b2) > abs($a2*$b*$b1 - $a*$b1*$b2)} } method NeedTerm? {} { expr { ($b*$b1*$b2*$b12==0) || !($a/$b ==$a1/$b1 &&$a/$b ==$a2/$b2 &&$a/$b ==$a12/$b12) } } method Done? {} { expr {$b==0 && $b1==0 &&$b2==0 && $b12==0} } method Produce {} { # Until we've drained both continued fractions... while {$cf1 ne "" || $cf2 ne ""} { if {[my NeedTerm?]} { my Ingress } else { yield [my Egress] } } # Drain our internal state while {![my Done?]} { yield [my Egress] } }} Demonstrating: set op [[NG2 new 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1] operands [R2CF new 1/2] [R2CF new 22/7]]printcf "$3;7$ + $0;2$"$op set op [[NG2 new 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1] operands [R2CF new 13/11] [R2CF new 22/7]]printcf "$1:5,2$ * $3;7$" $op set op [[NG2 new 0 1 -1 0 0 0 0 1] operands [R2CF new 13/11] [R2CF new 22/7]]printcf "$1:5,2$ - $3;7$"$op set op [[NG2 new 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0] operands [R2CF new 484/49] [R2CF new 22/7]]printcf "div test" $op set op1 [[NG2 new 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1] operands [R2CF new 2/7] [R2CF new 13/11]]set op2 [[NG2 new 0 1 -1 0 0 0 0 1] operands [R2CF new 2/7] [R2CF new 13/11]]set op3 [[NG2 new 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1] operands$op1 $op2]printcf "layered test"$op3
Output:
[3;7] + [0;2]  -> 3,1,1,1,4
[1:5,2] * [3;7]-> 3,1,2,2
[1:5,2] - [3;7]-> -2,25,1,2
div test       -> 3,7
layered test   -> -2,1,2,5,1,2,1,26,3


## Wren

Translation of: Kotlin
class MatrixNG {    construct new() {       _cfn = 0       _thisTerm = 0       _haveTerm = false    }    cfn     { _cfn }    cfn=(v) { _cfn = v }     thisTerm     { _thisTerm }    thisTerm=(v) { _thisTerm = v }     haveTerm     { _haveTerm }    haveTerm=(v) { _haveTerm = v }     consumeTerm() {}    consumeTerm(n) {}    needTerm() {}} class NG4 is MatrixNG {    construct new(a1, a, b1, b) {        super()        _a1 = a1        _a  = a        _b1 = b1        _b  = b        _t  = 0    }     needTerm() {        if (_b1 == 0 && _b == 0) return false        if (_b1 == 0 || _b == 0) return true        thisTerm = (_a / _b).truncate        if (thisTerm ==  (_a1 / _b1).truncate) {            _t = _a            _a = _b            _b = _t - _b  * thisTerm            _t = _a1            _a1 = _b1            _b1 = _t - _b1 * thisTerm            haveTerm = true            return false        }        return true    }     consumeTerm() {        _a = _a1        _b = _b1    }     consumeTerm(n) {        _t = _a        _a = _a1        _a1 = _t + _a1 * n        _t = _b        _b = _b1        _b1 = _t + _b1 * n    }} class NG8 is MatrixNG {    construct new(a12, a1, a2, a, b12, b1, b2, b) {        super()        _a12 = a12        _a1  = a1        _a2  = a2        _a   = a        _b12 = b12        _b1  = b1        _b2  = b2        _b   = b        _t   = 0        _ab  = 0         _a1b1 = 0        _a2b2 = 0         _a12b12 = 0    }     chooseCFN() { ((_a1b1 - _ab).abs > (_a2b2 - _ab).abs) ? 0 : 1 }     needTerm() {        if (_b1 == 0 && _b == 0 && _b2 == 0 && _b12 == 0) return false        if (_b == 0) {            cfn = (_b2 == 0) ? 0 : 1            return true        } else _ab = _a/_b         if (_b2 == 0) {            cfn = 1            return true        } else _a2b2 = _a2/_b2         if (_b1 == 0) {            cfn = 0            return true        } else _a1b1 = _a1/_b1         if (_b12 == 0) {            cfn = chooseCFN()            return true        } else _a12b12 = _a12/_b12         thisTerm = _ab.truncate        if (thisTerm == _a1b1.truncate && thisTerm == _a2b2.truncate &&            thisTerm == _a12b12.truncate) {            _t = _a                 _a = _b            _b = _t - _b * thisTerm            _t = _a1            _a1 = _b1            _b1 = _t - _b1 * thisTerm            _t = _a2              _a2 = _b2            _b2 = _t - _b2 * thisTerm            _t = _a12            _a12 = _b12            _b12 = _t - _b12 * thisTerm            haveTerm = true            return false        }        cfn = chooseCFN()        return true    }     consumeTerm() {        if (cfn == 0) {            _a  = _a1            _a2 = _a12            _b  = _b1            _b2 = _b12        } else {            _a  = _a2            _a1 = _a12            _b  = _b2            _b1 = _b12        }    }     consumeTerm(n) {        if (cfn == 0) {            _t = _a                  _a = _a1            _a1 = _t + _a1 * n            _t = _a2            _a2 = _a12            _a12 = _t + _a12 * n            _t = _b            _b = _b1            _b1 = _t + _b1 * n            _t = _b2            _b2 = _b12            _b12 = _t + _b12 * n        } else {            _t = _a                  _a = _a2            _a2 = _t + _a2 * n            _t = _a1            _a1 = _a12            _a12 = _t + _a12 * n            _t = _b            _b = _b2            _b2 = _t +  _b2 * n            _t = _b1            _b1 = _b12            _b12 = _t + _b12 * n        }    }} class ContinuedFraction {    nextTerm() {}    moreTerms() {}} class R2cf is ContinuedFraction {    construct new(n1, n2) {        _n1 = n1        _n2 = n2    }     nextTerm() {        var thisTerm = (_n1/_n2).truncate        var t2 = _n2        _n2 = _n1 - thisTerm * _n2        _n1 = t2        return thisTerm    }     moreTerms() { _n2.abs > 0 }} class NG is ContinuedFraction {    construct new(ng, n1) {        _ng = ng        _n = [n1]    }     construct new(ng, n1, n2) {        _ng = ng        _n = [n1, n2]    }     nextTerm() {        _ng.haveTerm = false        return _ng.thisTerm    }     moreTerms() {        while (_ng.needTerm()) {            if (_n[_ng.cfn].moreTerms()) {                _ng.consumeTerm(_n[_ng.cfn].nextTerm())            } else {                _ng.consumeTerm()            }        }        return _ng.haveTerm    }} var test = Fn.new { |desc, cfs|    System.print("TESTING -> %(desc)")    for (cf in cfs) {        while (cf.moreTerms()) System.write("%(cf.nextTerm()) ")        System.print()    }    System.print()} var a  = NG8.new(0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1)var n2 = R2cf.new(22, 7)var n1 = R2cf.new(1, 2)var a3 = NG4.new(2, 1, 0, 2)var n3 = R2cf.new(22, 7)test.call("[3;7] + [0;2]", [NG.new(a, n1, n2), NG.new(a3, n3)]) var b  = NG8.new(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1)var b1 = R2cf.new(13, 11)var b2 = R2cf.new(22, 7)test.call("[1;5,2] * [3;7]", [NG.new(b, b1, b2), R2cf.new(286, 77)]) var c = NG8.new(0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1)var c1 = R2cf.new(13, 11)var c2 = R2cf.new(22, 7)test.call("[1;5,2] - [3;7]", [NG.new(c, c1, c2), R2cf.new(-151, 77)]) var d = NG8.new(0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0)var d1 = R2cf.new(22 * 22, 7 * 7)var d2 = R2cf.new(22,7)test.call("Divide [] by [3;7]", [NG.new(d, d1, d2)]) var na = NG8.new(0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1)var a1 = R2cf.new(2, 7)var a2 = R2cf.new(13, 11)var aa = NG.new(na, a1, a2)var nb = NG8.new(0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1)var b3 = R2cf.new(2, 7)var b4 = R2cf.new(13, 11)var bb = NG.new(nb, b3, b4)var nc = NG8.new(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1)var desc = "([0;3,2] + [1;5,2]) * ([0;3,2] - [1;5,2])"test.call(desc, [NG.new(nc, aa, bb), R2cf.new(-7797, 5929)])
Output:
TESTING -> [3;7] + [0;2]
3 1 1 1 4
3 1 1 1 4

TESTING -> [1;5,2] * [3;7]
3 1 2 2
3 1 2 2

TESTING -> [1;5,2] - [3;7]
-1 -1 -24 -1 -2
-1 -1 -24 -1 -2

TESTING -> Divide [] by [3;7]
3 7

TESTING -> ([0;3,2] + [1;5,2]) * ([0;3,2] - [1;5,2])
-1 -3 -5 -1 -2 -1 -26 -3
-1 -3 -5 -1 -2 -1 -26 -3