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Window creation/X11

From Rosetta Code
Task
Window creation/X11
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.
Task

Create a simple X11 application,   using an X11 protocol library such as Xlib or XCB,   that draws a box and   "Hello World"   in a window.

Implementations of this task should   avoid using a toolkit   as much as possible.

AArch64 Assembly[edit]

Works with: as version Raspberry Pi 3B version Buster 64 bits
 
/* ARM assembly AARCH64 Raspberry PI 3B */
/* program creatFenX1164.s */
/* link with gcc options -lX11 -L/usr/lpp/X11/lib */
 
/*******************************************/
/* Constantes file */
/*******************************************/
/* for this file see task include a file in language AArch64 assembly*/
.include "../includeConstantesARM64.inc"
.equ ClientMessage, 33
 
/*******************************************/
/* Initialized data */
/*******************************************/
.data
szRetourligne: .asciz "\n"
szMessErreur: .asciz "Server X11 not found.\n"
szMessErrfen: .asciz "Error create X11 window.\n"
 
szLibDW: .asciz "WM_DELETE_WINDOW" // message close window
 
/*******************************************/
/* UnInitialized data */
/*******************************************/
.bss
.align 4
qDisplay: .skip 8 // Display address
qDefScreen: .skip 8 // Default screen address
identWin: .skip 8 // window ident
wmDeleteMessage: .skip 16 // ident close message
stEvent: .skip 400 // provisional size
 
buffer: .skip 500
 
/**********************************************/
/* -- Code section */
/**********************************************/
.text
.global main // program entry
main:
mov x0,#0 // open server X
bl XOpenDisplay
cmp x0,#0
beq erreur
// Ok return Display address
ldr x1,qAdrqDisplay
str x0,[x1] // store Display address for future use
mov x28,x0 // and in register 28
// load default screen
ldr x2,[x0,#264] // at location 264
ldr x1,qAdrqDefScreen
str x2,[x1] //store default_screen
mov x2,x0
ldr x0,[x2,#232] // screen list
 
//screen areas
ldr x5,[x0,#+88] // white pixel
ldr x3,[x0,#+96] // black pixel
ldr x4,[x0,#+56] // bits par pixel
ldr x1,[x0,#+16] // root windows
// create window x11
mov x0,x28 //display
mov x2,#0 // position X
mov x3,#0 // position Y
mov x4,600 // weight
mov x5,400 // height
mov x6,0 // bordure ???
ldr x7,0 // ?
ldr x8,qBlanc // background
str x8,[sp,-16]! // argument fot stack
bl XCreateSimpleWindow
add sp,sp,16 // for stack alignement
cmp x0,#0 // error ?
beq erreurF
//mov x3,sp
ldr x1,qAdridentWin
str x0,[x1] // store window ident for future use
mov x27,x0 // and in register 27
 
// Correction of window closing error
mov x0,x28 // Display address
ldr x1,qAdrszLibDW // atom name address
mov x2,#1 // False create atom if not exist
bl XInternAtom
cmp x0,#0
ble erreurF
ldr x1,qAdrwmDeleteMessage // address message
str x0,[x1]
mov x2,x1 // address atom create
mov x0,x28 // display address
mov x1,x27 // window ident
mov x3,#1 // number of protocoles
bl XSetWMProtocols
cmp x0,#0
ble erreurF
 
// Display window
mov x1,x27 // ident window
mov x0,x28 // Display address
bl XMapWindow
 
1: // events loop
mov x0,x28 // Display address
ldr x1,qAdrstEvent // events structure address
bl XNextEvent
ldr x0,qAdrstEvent // events structure address
ldr w0,[x0] // type in 4 fist bytes
cmp w0,#ClientMessage // message for close window
bne 1b // no -> loop
 
ldr x0,qAdrstEvent // events structure address
ldr x1,[x0,56] // location message code
ldr x2,qAdrwmDeleteMessage // equal ?
ldr x2,[x2]
cmp x1,x2
bne 1b // no loop
 
mov x0,0 // end Ok
b 100f
erreurF: // error create window
ldr x0,qAdrszMessErrfen
bl affichageMess
mov x0,1
b 100f
erreur: // error no server x11 active
ldr x0,qAdrszMessErreur
bl affichageMess
mov x0,1
100: // program standard end
mov x8,EXIT
svc 0
qBlanc: .quad 0xF0F0F0F0
qAdrqDisplay: .quad qDisplay
qAdrqDefScreen: .quad qDefScreen
qAdridentWin: .quad identWin
qAdrstEvent: .quad stEvent
qAdrszMessErrfen: .quad szMessErrfen
qAdrszMessErreur: .quad szMessErreur
qAdrwmDeleteMessage: .quad wmDeleteMessage
qAdrszLibDW: .quad szLibDW
/********************************************************/
/* File Include fonctions */
/********************************************************/
/* for this file see task include a file in language AArch64 assembly */
.include "../includeARM64.inc"
 
 

ALGOL 68[edit]

Works with: ALGOL 68G version tested with release mk15-0.8b.fc9.i386

Using the X11 & plotutil libraries is not part of any of the original UNESCO/IFIP ALGOL 68 reports. As at December 2008 only ALGOL 68G comes with these built in.

FILE window;
draw device (window, "X", "600x400");
open (window, "Hello, World!", stand draw channel);
draw erase (window);
draw move (window, 0.25, 0.5);
draw colour (window, 1, 0, 0);
draw text (window, "c", "c", "hello world");
draw show (window);
VOID (read char);
close (window)

ARM Assembly[edit]

Works with: as version Raspberry Pi
 
 
/* ARM assembly Raspberry PI */
/* program windows1.s */
 
/* compile with as */
/* link with gcc and options -lX11 -L/usr/lpp/X11/lib */
 
/********************************************/
/*Constantes */
/********************************************/
.equ STDOUT, 1 @ Linux output console
.equ EXIT, 1 @ Linux syscall
.equ WRITE, 4 @ Linux syscall
/* constantes X11 */
.equ KeyPressed, 2
.equ ButtonPress, 4
.equ MotionNotify, 6
.equ EnterNotify, 7
.equ LeaveNotify, 8
.equ Expose, 12
.equ ClientMessage, 33
.equ KeyPressMask, 1
.equ ButtonPressMask, 4
.equ ButtonReleaseMask, 8
.equ ExposureMask, 1<<15
.equ StructureNotifyMask, 1<<17
.equ EnterWindowMask, 1<<4
.equ LeaveWindowMask, 1<<5
.equ ConfigureNotify, 22
 
/*******************************************/
/* DONNEES INITIALISEES */
/*******************************************/
.data
szWindowName: .asciz "Windows Raspberry"
szRetourligne: .asciz "\n"
szMessDebutPgm: .asciz "Program start. \n"
szMessErreur: .asciz "Server X not found.\n"
szMessErrfen: .asciz "Can not create window.\n"
szMessErreurX11: .asciz "Error call function X11. \n"
szMessErrGc: .asciz "Can not create graphics context.\n"
szTitreFenRed: .asciz "Pi"
szTexte1: .asciz "Hello world."
.equ LGTEXTE1, . - szTexte1
szTexte2: .asciz "Press q for close window or clic X in system menu."
.equ LGTEXTE2, . - szTexte2
szLibDW: .asciz "WM_DELETE_WINDOW" @ special label for correct close error
 
/*************************************************/
szMessErr: .ascii "Error code hexa : "
sHexa: .space 9,' '
.ascii " decimal : "
sDeci: .space 15,' '
.asciz "\n"
 
/*******************************************/
/* DONNEES NON INITIALISEES */
/*******************************************/
.bss
.align 4
ptDisplay: .skip 4 @ pointer display
ptEcranDef: .skip 4 @ pointer screen default
ptFenetre: .skip 4 @ pointer window
ptGC: .skip 4 @ pointer graphic context
key: .skip 4 @ key code
wmDeleteMessage: .skip 8 @ ident close message
event: .skip 400 @ TODO event size ??
PrpNomFenetre: .skip 100 @ window name proprety
buffer: .skip 500
iWhite: .skip 4 @ rgb code for white pixel
iBlack: .skip 4 @ rgb code for black pixel
/**********************************************/
/* -- Code section */
/**********************************************/
.text
.global main
 
main: @ entry of program
ldr r0,iAdrszMessDebutPgm @
bl affichageMess @ display start message on console linux
/* attention r6 pointer display*/
/* attention r8 pointer graphic context */
/* attention r9 ident window */
/*****************************/
/* OPEN SERVER X11 */
/*****************************/
mov r0,#0
bl XOpenDisplay @ open X server
cmp r0,#0 @ error ?
beq erreurServeur
ldr r1,iAdrptDisplay
str r0,[r1] @ store display address
mov r6,r0 @ and in register r6
ldr r2,[r0,#+132] @ load default_screen
ldr r1,iAdrptEcranDef
str r2,[r1] @ store default_screen
mov r2,r0
ldr r0,[r2,#+140] @ load pointer screen list
ldr r5,[r0,#+52] @ load value white pixel
ldr r4,iAdrWhite @ and store in memory
str r5,[r4]
ldr r3,[r0,#+56] @ load value black pixel
ldr r4,iAdrBlack @ and store in memory
str r3,[r4]
ldr r4,[r0,#+28] @ load bits par pixel
ldr r1,[r0,#+8] @ load root windows
/**************************/
/* CREATE WINDOW */
/**************************/
mov r0,r6 @ address display
mov r2,#0 @ window position X
mov r3,#0 @ window position Y
mov r8,#0 @ for stack alignement
push {r8}
push {r3} @ background = black pixel
push {r5} @ border = white pixel
mov r8,#2 @ border size
push {r8}
mov r8,#400 @ hauteur
push {r8}
mov r8,#600 @ largeur
push {r8}
bl XCreateSimpleWindow
add sp,#24 @ stack alignement 6 push (4 bytes * 6)
cmp r0,#0 @ error ?
beq erreurF
 
ldr r1,iAdrptFenetre
str r0,[r1] @ store window address in memory
mov r9,r0 @ and in register r9
/*****************************/
/* add window property */
/*****************************/
mov r0,r6 @ display address
mov r1,r9 @ window address
ldr r2,iAdrszWindowName @ window name
ldr r3,iAdrszTitreFenRed @ window name reduced
mov r4,#0
push {r4} @ parameters not use
push {r4}
push {r4}
push {r4}
bl XSetStandardProperties
add sp,sp,#16 @ stack alignement for 4 push
/**************************************/
/* for correction window close error */
/**************************************/
mov r0,r6 @ display address
ldr r1,iAdrszLibDW @ atom address
mov r2,#1 @ False créate atom if not exists
bl XInternAtom
cmp r0,#0 @ error X11 ?
ble erreurX11
ldr r1,iAdrwmDeleteMessage @ recept address
str r0,[r1]
mov r2,r1 @ return address
mov r0,r6 @ display address
mov r1,r9 @ window address
mov r3,#1 @ number of protocols
bl XSetWMProtocols
cmp r0,#0 @ error X11 ?
ble erreurX11
/**********************************/
/* create graphic context */
/**********************************/
mov r0,r6 @ display address
mov r1,r9 @ window address
mov r2,#0 @ not use for simply context
mov r3,#0
bl XCreateGC
cmp r0,#0 @ error ?
beq erreurGC
ldr r1,iAdrptGC
str r0,[r1] @ store address graphic context
mov r8,r0 @ and in r8
/****************************/
/* modif window background */
/****************************/
mov r0,r6 @ display address
mov r1,r9 @ window address
ldr r2,iGris1 @ background color
bl XSetWindowBackground
cmp r0,#0 @ error ?
ble erreurX11
/***************************/
/* OUF!! window display */
/***************************/
mov r0,r6 @ display address
mov r1,r9 @ window address
bl XMapWindow
/****************************/
/* Write text in the window */
/****************************/
mov r0,r6 @ display address
mov r1,r9 @ window address
mov r2,r8 @ address graphic context
mov r3,#50 @ position x
sub sp,#4 @ stack alignement
mov r4,#LGTEXTE1 - 1 @ size string
push {r4} @ on the stack
ldr r4,iAdrszTexte1 @ string address
push {r4}
mov r4,#100 @ position y
push {r4}
bl XDrawString
add sp,sp,#16 @ stack alignement 3 push and 1 stack alignement
cmp r0,#0 @ error ?
blt erreurX11
/* write text 2 */
mov r0,r6 @ display address
mov r1,r9 @ window address
mov r2,r8 @ address graphic context
mov r3,#10 @ position x
sub sp,#4 @ stack alignement
mov r4,#LGTEXTE2 - 1 @ size string
push {r4} @ on the stack
ldr r4,iAdrszTexte2 @ string address
push {r4}
mov r4,#350 @ position y
push {r4}
bl XDrawString
add sp,sp,#16 @ stack alignement 3 push and 1 stack alignement
cmp r0,#0 @ error ?
blt erreurX11
/****************************/
/* Autorisations */
/****************************/
mov r0,r6 @ display address
mov r1,r9 @ window address
ldr r2,iFenetreMask @ autorisation mask
bl XSelectInput
cmp r0,#0 @ error ?
ble erreurX11
/****************************/
/* Events loop */
/****************************/
1:
mov r0,r6 @ display address
ldr r1,iAdrevent @ events address
bl XNextEvent @ event ?
ldr r0,iAdrevent
ldr r0,[r0] @ code event
cmp r0,#KeyPressed @ key ?
bne 2f
ldr r0,iAdrevent @ yes read key in buffer
ldr r1,iAdrbuffer
mov r2,#255
ldr r3,iAdrkey
mov r4,#0
push {r4} @ stack alignement
push {r4}
bl XLookupString
add sp,#8 @ stack alignement 2 push
cmp r0,#1 @ is character key ?
bne 2f
ldr r0,iAdrbuffer @ yes -> load first buffer character
ldrb r0,[r0]
cmp r0,#0x71 @ character q for quit
beq 5f @ yes -> end
b 4f
2:
/* */
/* for example clic mouse button */
/************************************/
cmp r0,#ButtonPress @ clic mouse buton
bne 3f
ldr r0,iAdrevent
ldr r1,[r0,#+32] @ position X mouse clic
ldr r2,[r0,#+36] @ position Y
@ etc for eventuel use
b 4f
3:
cmp r0,#ClientMessage @ code for close window within error
bne 4f
ldr r0,iAdrevent
ldr r1,[r0,#+28] @ code message address
ldr r2,iAdrwmDeleteMessage @ equal code window créate ???
ldr r2,[r2]
cmp r1,r2
beq 5f @ yes -> end window
 
4: @ loop for other event
b 1b
/***********************************/
/* Close window -> free ressources */
/***********************************/
5:
mov r0,r6 @ display address
ldr r1,iAdrptGC
ldr r1,[r1] @ load context graphic address
bl XFreeGC
cmp r0,#0
blt erreurX11
mov r0,r6 @ display address
mov r1,r9 @ window address
bl XDestroyWindow
cmp r0,#0
blt erreurX11
mov r0,r6 @ display address
bl XCloseDisplay
cmp r0,#0
blt erreurX11
mov r0,#0 @ return code OK
b 100f
erreurF: @ create error window but possible not necessary. Display error by server
ldr r1,iAdrszMessErrfen
bl displayError
mov r0,#1 @ return error code
b 100f
erreurGC: @ error create graphic context
ldr r1,iAdrszMessErrGc
bl displayError
mov r0,#1
b 100f
erreurX11: @ erreur X11
ldr r1,iAdrszMessErreurX11
bl displayError
mov r0,#1
b 100f
erreurServeur: @ error no found X11 server see doc putty and Xming
ldr r1,iAdrszMessErreur
bl displayError
mov r0,#1
b 100f
 
100: @ standard end of the program
mov r7, #EXIT
svc 0
iFenetreMask: .int KeyPressMask|ButtonPressMask|StructureNotifyMask
iGris1: .int 0xFFA0A0A0
iAdrWhite: .int iWhite
iAdrBlack: .int iBlack
iAdrptDisplay: .int ptDisplay
iAdrptEcranDef: .int ptEcranDef
iAdrptFenetre: .int ptFenetre
iAdrptGC: .int ptGC
iAdrevent: .int event
iAdrbuffer: .int buffer
iAdrkey: .int key
iAdrszLibDW: .int szLibDW
iAdrszMessDebutPgm: .int szMessDebutPgm
iAdrszMessErreurX11: .int szMessErreurX11
iAdrszMessErrGc: .int szMessErrGc
iAdrszMessErreur: .int szMessErreur
iAdrszMessErrfen: .int szMessErrfen
iAdrszWindowName: .int szWindowName
iAdrszTitreFenRed: .int szTitreFenRed
iAdrszTexte1: .int szTexte1
iAdrszTexte2: .int szTexte2
iAdrPrpNomFenetre: .int PrpNomFenetre
iAdrwmDeleteMessage: .int wmDeleteMessage
/******************************************************************/
/* display text with size calculation */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the address of the message */
affichageMess:
push {r0,r1,r2,r7,lr} @ save registres
mov r2,#0 @ counter length
1: @ loop length calculation
ldrb r1,[r0,r2] @ read octet start position + index
cmp r1,#0 @ if 0 its over
addne r2,r2,#1 @ else add 1 in the length
bne 1b @ and loop
@ so here r2 contains the length of the message
mov r1,r0 @ address message in r1
mov r0,#STDOUT @ code to write to the standard output Linux
mov r7, #WRITE @ code call system "write"
svc #0 @ call systeme
pop {r0,r1,r2,r7,lr} @ restaur registers */
bx lr @ return
/***************************************************/
/* affichage message d erreur */
/***************************************************/
/* r0 contains error code r1 : message address */
displayError:
push {r0-r2,lr} @ save registers
mov r2,r0 @ save error code
mov r0,r1
bl affichageMess
mov r0,r2 @ error code
ldr r1,iAdrsHexa
bl conversion16 @ conversion hexa
mov r0,r2 @ error code
ldr r1,iAdrsDeci @ result address
bl conversion10 @ conversion decimale
ldr r0,iAdrszMessErr @ display error message
bl affichageMess
100:
pop {r0-r2,lr} @ restaur registers
bx lr @ return
iAdrszMessErr: .int szMessErr
iAdrsHexa: .int sHexa
iAdrsDeci: .int sDeci
/******************************************************************/
/* Converting a register to hexadecimal */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains value and r1 address area */
conversion16:
push {r1-r4,lr} @ save registers
mov r2,#28 @ start bit position
mov r4,#0xF0000000 @ mask
mov r3,r0 @ save entry value
1: @ start loop
and r0,r3,r4 @value register and mask
lsr r0,r2 @ move right
cmp r0,#10 @ compare value
addlt r0,#48 @ <10 ->digit
addge r0,#55 @ >10 ->letter A-F
strb r0,[r1],#1 @ store digit on area and + 1 in area address
lsr r4,#4 @ shift mask 4 positions
subs r2,#4 @ counter bits - 4 <= zero  ?
bge 1b @ no -> loop
 
100:
pop {r1-r4,lr} @ restaur registers
bx lr @return
/******************************************************************/
/* Converting a register to a decimal unsigned */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains value and r1 address area */
/* r0 return size of result (no zero final in area) */
/* area size => 11 bytes */
.equ LGZONECAL, 10
conversion10:
push {r1-r4,lr} @ save registers
mov r3,r1
mov r2,#LGZONECAL
1: @ start loop
bl divisionpar10U @ unsigned r0 <- dividende. quotient ->r0 reste -> r1
add r1,#48 @ digit
strb r1,[r3,r2] @ store digit on area
cmp r0,#0 @ stop if quotient = 0
subne r2,#1 @ else previous position
bne 1b @ and loop
@ and move digit from left of area
mov r4,#0
2:
ldrb r1,[r3,r2]
strb r1,[r3,r4]
add r2,#1
add r4,#1
cmp r2,#LGZONECAL
ble 2b
@ and move spaces in end on area
mov r0,r4 @ result length
mov r1,#' ' @ space
3:
strb r1,[r3,r4] @ store space in area
add r4,#1 @ next position
cmp r4,#LGZONECAL
ble 3b @ loop if r4 <= area size
 
100:
pop {r1-r4,lr} @ restaur registres
bx lr @return
 
/***************************************************/
/* division par 10 unsigned */
/***************************************************/
/* r0 dividende */
/* r0 quotient */
/* r1 remainder */
divisionpar10U:
push {r2,r3,r4, lr}
mov r4,r0 @ save value
ldr r3,iMagicNumber @ r3 <- magic_number raspberry 1 2
umull r1, r2, r3, r0 @ r1<- Lower32Bits(r1*r0) r2<- Upper32Bits(r1*r0)
mov r0, r2, LSR #3 @ r2 <- r2 >> shift 3
add r2,r0,r0, lsl #2 @ r2 <- r0 * 5
sub r1,r4,r2, lsl #1 @ r1 <- r4 - (r2 * 2) = r4 - (r0 * 10)
pop {r2,r3,r4,lr}
bx lr @ leave function
iMagicNumber: .int 0xCCCCCCCD
 


BaCon[edit]

 
'--- added a flush to exit cleanly
PRAGMA LDFLAGS `pkg-config --cflags --libs x11`
PRAGMA INCLUDE <X11/Xlib.h>
PRAGMA INCLUDE <X11/Xutil.h>
 
OPTION PARSE FALSE
 
'
---XLIB is so ugly
ALIAS XNextEvent TO EVENT
ALIAS XOpenDisplay TO DISPLAY
ALIAS DefaultScreen TO SCREEN
ALIAS XCreateSimpleWindow TO CREATE
ALIAS XCloseDisplay TO CLOSE_DISPLAY
ALIAS XSelectInput TO EVENT_TYPE
ALIAS XMapWindow TO MAP_EVENT
ALIAS XFillRectangle TO FILL_RECTANGLE
ALIAS XDrawString TO DRAW_STRING
ALIAS XFlush TO FLUSH
 
 
'---pointer to X Display structure
DECLARE d TYPE Display*
 
'
---pointer to the newly created window
'DECLARE w TYPE WINDOW
 
'
---pointer to the XEvent
DECLARE e TYPE XEvent
 
DECLARE msg TYPE char*
 
'--- number of screen to place the window on
DECLARE s TYPE int
 
 
 
msg = "Hello, World!"
 
 
d = DISPLAY(NULL)
IF d == NULL THEN
EPRINT "Cannot open display" FORMAT "%s%s\n"
END
END IF
 
s = SCREEN(d)
w = CREATE(d, RootWindow(d, s), 10, 10, 100, 100, 1,BlackPixel(d, s), WhitePixel(d, s))
 
EVENT_TYPE(d, w, ExposureMask | KeyPressMask)
MAP_EVENT(d, w)
 
WHILE (1)
EVENT(d, &e)
IF e.type == Expose THEN
FILL_RECTANGLE(d, w, DefaultGC(d, s), 20, 20, 10, 10)
DRAW_STRING(d, w, DefaultGC(d, s), 10, 50, msg, strlen(msg))
END IF
IF e.type == KeyPress THEN
BREAK
END IF
WEND
FLUSH(d)
CLOSE_DISPLAY(d)

C[edit]

Xlib[edit]

Library: Xlib

Compile with:

  • gcc hello-x.c -L/usr/X11R6/lib -lX11 -o hello-x
#include <X11/Xlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
 
int main(void) {
Display *d;
Window w;
XEvent e;
const char *msg = "Hello, World!";
int s;
 
d = XOpenDisplay(NULL);
if (d == NULL) {
fprintf(stderr, "Cannot open display\n");
exit(1);
}
 
s = DefaultScreen(d);
w = XCreateSimpleWindow(d, RootWindow(d, s), 10, 10, 100, 100, 1,
BlackPixel(d, s), WhitePixel(d, s));
XSelectInput(d, w, ExposureMask | KeyPressMask);
XMapWindow(d, w);
 
while (1) {
XNextEvent(d, &e);
if (e.type == Expose) {
XFillRectangle(d, w, DefaultGC(d, s), 20, 20, 10, 10);
XDrawString(d, w, DefaultGC(d, s), 10, 50, msg, strlen(msg));
}
if (e.type == KeyPress)
break;
}
 
XCloseDisplay(d);
return 0;
}

XCB[edit]

Library: XCB

Compile with:

  • gcc -o helloxcb helloxcb.c -lxcb
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
 
#include <xcb/xcb.h>
 
int main ()
{
xcb_connection_t *c;
xcb_screen_t *screen;
xcb_drawable_t win;
xcb_gcontext_t foreground;
xcb_gcontext_t background;
xcb_generic_event_t *e;
uint32_t mask = 0;
uint32_t values[2];
 
char string[] = "Hello, XCB!";
uint8_t string_len = strlen(string);
 
xcb_rectangle_t rectangles[] = {
{40, 40, 20, 20},
};
 
c = xcb_connect (NULL, NULL);
 
/* get the first screen */
screen = xcb_setup_roots_iterator (xcb_get_setup (c)).data;
 
/* root window */
win = screen->root;
 
/* create black (foreground) graphic context */
foreground = xcb_generate_id (c);
mask = XCB_GC_FOREGROUND | XCB_GC_GRAPHICS_EXPOSURES;
values[0] = screen->black_pixel;
values[1] = 0;
xcb_create_gc (c, foreground, win, mask, values);
 
/* create white (background) graphic context */
background = xcb_generate_id (c);
mask = XCB_GC_BACKGROUND | XCB_GC_GRAPHICS_EXPOSURES;
values[0] = screen->white_pixel;
values[1] = 0;
xcb_create_gc (c, background, win, mask, values);
 
/* create the window */
win = xcb_generate_id(c);
mask = XCB_CW_BACK_PIXEL | XCB_CW_EVENT_MASK;
values[0] = screen->white_pixel;
values[1] = XCB_EVENT_MASK_EXPOSURE | XCB_EVENT_MASK_KEY_PRESS;
xcb_create_window (c, /* connection */
XCB_COPY_FROM_PARENT, /* depth */
win, /* window Id */
screen->root, /* parent window */
0, 0, /* x, y */
150, 150, /* width, height */
10, /* border_width */
XCB_WINDOW_CLASS_INPUT_OUTPUT, /* class */
screen->root_visual, /* visual */
mask, values); /* masks */
 
/* map the window on the screen */
xcb_map_window (c, win);
 
xcb_flush (c);
 
while ((e = xcb_wait_for_event (c))) {
switch (e->response_type & ~0x80) {
case XCB_EXPOSE:
xcb_poly_rectangle (c, win, foreground, 1, rectangles);
xcb_image_text_8 (c, string_len, win, background, 20, 20, string);
xcb_flush (c);
break;
case XCB_KEY_PRESS:
goto endloop;
}
free (e);
}
endloop:
 
return 0;
}

COBOL[edit]

Tested with GnuCOBOL, and only on 64bit architecture, GNU/Linux. Nods to the C XLib version.

       identification division.
program-id. x11-hello.
installation. cobc -x x11-hello.cob -lX11
remarks. Use of private data is likely not cross platform.
 
data division.
working-storage section.
01 msg.
05 filler value z"S'up, Earth?".
01 msg-len usage binary-long value 12.
 
01 x-display usage pointer.
01 x-window usage binary-c-long.
 
*> GnuCOBOL does not evaluate C macros, need to peek at opaque
*> data from Xlib.h
*> some padding is added, due to this comment in the header
*> "there is more to this structure, but it is private to Xlib"
01 x-display-private based.
05 x-ext-data usage pointer sync.
05 private1 usage pointer.
05 x-fd usage binary-long.
05 private2 usage binary-long.
05 proto-major-version usage binary-long.
05 proto-minor-version usage binary-long.
05 vendor usage pointer sync.
05 private3 usage pointer.
05 private4 usage pointer.
05 private5 usage pointer.
05 private6 usage binary-long.
05 allocator usage program-pointer sync.
05 byte-order usage binary-long.
05 bitmap-unit usage binary-long.
05 bitmap-pad usage binary-long.
05 bitmap-bit-order usage binary-long.
05 nformats usage binary-long.
05 screen-format usage pointer sync.
05 private8 usage binary-long.
05 x-release usage binary-long.
05 private9 usage pointer sync.
05 private10 usage pointer sync.
05 qlen usage binary-long.
05 last-request-read usage binary-c-long unsigned sync.
05 request usage binary-c-long unsigned sync.
05 private11 usage pointer sync.
05 private12 usage pointer.
05 private13 usage pointer.
05 private14 usage pointer.
05 max-request-size usage binary-long unsigned.
05 x-db usage pointer sync.
05 private15 usage program-pointer sync.
05 display-name usage pointer.
05 default-screen usage binary-long.
05 nscreens usage binary-long.
05 screens usage pointer sync.
05 motion-buffer usage binary-c-long unsigned.
05 private16 usage binary-c-long unsigned.
05 min-keycode usage binary-long.
05 max-keycode usage binary-long.
05 private17 usage pointer sync.
05 private18 usage pointer.
05 private19 usage binary-long.
05 x-defaults usage pointer sync.
05 filler pic x(256).
 
01 x-screen-private based.
05 scr-ext-data usage pointer sync.
05 display-back usage pointer.
05 root usage binary-c-long.
05 x-width usage binary-long.
05 x-height usage binary-long.
05 m-width usage binary-long.
05 m-height usage binary-long.
05 x-ndepths usage binary-long.
05 depths usage pointer sync.
05 root-depth usage binary-long.
05 root-visual usage pointer sync.
05 default-gc usage pointer.
05 cmap usage pointer.
05 white-pixel usage binary-c-long unsigned sync.
05 black-pixel usage binary-c-long unsigned.
05 max-maps usage binary-long.
05 min-maps usage binary-long.
05 backing-store usage binary-long.
05 save_unders usage binary-char.
05 root-input-mask usage binary-c-long sync.
05 filler pic x(256).
 
01 event.
05 e-type usage binary-long.
05 filler pic x(188).
05 filler pic x(256).
01 Expose constant as 12.
01 KeyPress constant as 2.
 
*> ExposureMask or-ed with KeyPressMask, from X.h
01 event-mask usage binary-c-long value 32769.
 
*> make the box around the message wide enough for the font
01 x-char-struct.
05 lbearing usage binary-short.
05 rbearing usage binary-short.
05 string-width usage binary-short.
05 ascent usage binary-short.
05 descent usage binary-short.
05 attributes usage binary-short unsigned.
01 font-direction usage binary-long.
01 font-ascent usage binary-long.
01 font-descent usage binary-long.
 
01 XGContext usage binary-c-long.
01 box-width usage binary-long.
01 box-height usage binary-long.
 
*> ***************************************************************
procedure division.
 
call "XOpenDisplay" using by reference null returning x-display
on exception
display function module-id " Error: "
"no XOpenDisplay linkage, requires libX11"
upon syserr
stop run returning 1
end-call
if x-display equal null then
display function module-id " Error: "
"XOpenDisplay returned null" upon syserr
stop run returning 1
end-if
set address of x-display-private to x-display
 
if screens equal null then
display function module-id " Error: "
"XOpenDisplay associated screen null" upon syserr
stop run returning 1
end-if
set address of x-screen-private to screens
 
call "XCreateSimpleWindow" using
by value x-display root 10 10 200 50 1
black-pixel white-pixel
returning x-window
call "XStoreName" using
by value x-display x-window by reference msg
 
call "XSelectInput" using by value x-display x-window event-mask
 
call "XMapWindow" using by value x-display x-window
 
call "XGContextFromGC" using by value default-gc
returning XGContext
call "XQueryTextExtents" using by value x-display XGContext
by reference msg by value msg-len
by reference font-direction font-ascent font-descent
x-char-struct
compute box-width = string-width + 8
compute box-height = font-ascent + font-descent + 8
 
perform forever
call "XNextEvent" using by value x-display by reference event
if e-type equal Expose then
call "XDrawRectangle" using
by value x-display x-window default-gc 5 5
box-width box-height
call "XDrawString" using
by value x-display x-window default-gc 10 20
by reference msg by value msg-len
end-if
if e-type equal KeyPress then exit perform end-if
end-perform
 
call "XCloseDisplay" using by value x-display
 
goback.
end program x11-hello.

Common Lisp[edit]

This example needs review by someone who knows about: X11
This example was written in near-total ignorance of X11 by consulting the CLX manual to find equivalents for the parts of the C example. It was also only tested with Mac OS X X11, which is not exactly normal. — (ps: Testing on Linux (Fedora 21/x86-64), it seems to display black-on-black, so the "Hello" is lost.). Testing new code changes (i.e. adding background and foreground) should fix the issue, it was tested on LinuxMint 17.1/x86-64. Also tested on Debian; with a minor change on the text position it creates a pixel perfect replica of the C example. Could this warning be removed then?

If you know X11, please review this example and, as necessary, improve it or describe what should be done for someone who knows the language.

Translation of: C
Library: CLX

This example uses CLX, which is the de facto standard X11 library for Common Lisp. CLX is not a binding to Xlib; it is a Lisp library implementing the X11 protocol.

;;; Single-file/interactive setup; large applications should define an ASDF system instead
 
(let* ((display (open-default-display))
(screen (display-default-screen display))
(root-window (screen-root screen))
(black-pixel (screen-black-pixel screen))
(white-pixel (screen-white-pixel screen))
(window (create-window :parent root-window
:x 10 :y 10
:width 100 :height 100
:background white-pixel
:event-mask '(:exposure :key-press)))
(gc (create-gcontext :drawable window
:foreground black-pixel
:background white-pixel)))
(map-window window)
(unwind-protect
(event-case (display :discard-p t)
(exposure ()
(draw-rectangle window gc 20 20 10 10 t)
(draw-glyphs window gc 10 50 "Hello, World!")
nil #| continue receiving events |#)
(key-press ()
t #| non-nil result signals event-case to exit |#))
(when window
(destroy-window window))
(when gc
(free-gcontext gc))
(close-display display)))
 
 

Forth[edit]

Running Ubuntu 20.04 64-bit Using  : Gforth 0.7.9_20211014

 
warnings off
require xlib.fs
 
0 value X11-D \ Display
0 value X11-S \ Screen
0 value X11-root
0 value X11-GC
0 value X11-W \ Window
0 value X11-Black
0 value X11-White
9 value X11-Top
0 value X11-Left
create X11-ev 96 allot
 
variable wm_delete
 
: X11-D-S X11-D X11-S ;
: X11-D-G X11-D X11-GC ;
: X11-D-W X11-D X11-W ;
: X11-D-W-G X11-D-W X11-GC ;
 
: open-X11 ( -- )
X11-D 0= if 0 XOpendisplay to X11-D
X11-D 0= abort" can't connect to X server"
X11-D XDefaultscreen to X11-S
X11-D-S XRootwindow to X11-root
X11-D-S XDefaultGC to X11-GC
X11-D-S XBlackPixel to X11-Black
X11-D-S XWhitePixel to X11-White
then
X11-W 0= if X11-D X11-root X11-top X11-left 400 220 0 0 $808080 XCreateSimplewindow to X11-W
X11-W 0= abort" failed to create X11-window"
X11-D-W $28043 XSelectInput drop
X11-D s" WM_DELETE_WEINDOW" 1 XInternAtom wm_delete !
X11-D-W wm_delete 1 XSetWMProtocols drop
X11-D-W XMapwindow drop
X11-D XFlush drop
then ;
 
: close-graphics ( -- )
X11-W if X11-D-W XDestroywindow drop 0 to X11-W
then
X11-D if X11-D XClosedisplay 0 to X11-D
then ;
 
: foreground >r X11-D-G r> XSetForeground drop ;
: background >r X11-D-G r> XSetBackground drop ;
: keysym X11-ev 0 XLookupKeysym ;
 
: ev-loop
begin X11-D X11-ev XNextEvent throw
X11-White foreground
X11-Black background
X11-D-W-G 100 100 s" Hello World" XDrawString drop
X11-D-W-G 100 120 150 25 XDrawRectangle drop
X11-D-W-G 110 135 s" Press ESC to exit ..." XDrawString drop
case X11-ev @ $ffffffff and
3 of keysym XK_Escape = if exit then endof
endcase
again ;
\ #### Test #####
0 open-X11
ev-loop
close-graphics
bye
 

Go[edit]

Translation of: C
package main
 
// Copyright (c) 2013 Alex Kesling
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
// of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
// in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
// to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
// copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
// furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
//
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
// IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
// FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
// AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
// LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
// OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
// THE SOFTWARE.
 
import (
"log"
"github.com/jezek/xgb"
"github.com/jezek/xgb/xproto"
)
 
func main() {
// Open the connection to the X server
X, err := xgb.NewConn()
if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}
 
// geometric objects
points := []xproto.Point{
{10, 10},
{10, 20},
{20, 10},
{20, 20}};
 
polyline := []xproto.Point{
{50, 10},
{ 5, 20}, // rest of points are relative
{25,-20},
{10, 10}};
 
segments := []xproto.Segment{
{100, 10, 140, 30},
{110, 25, 130, 60}};
 
rectangles := []xproto.Rectangle{
{ 10, 50, 40, 20},
{ 80, 50, 10, 40}};
 
arcs := []xproto.Arc{
{10, 100, 60, 40, 0, 90 << 6},
{90, 100, 55, 40, 0, 270 << 6}};
 
setup := xproto.Setup(X)
// Get the first screen
screen := setup.DefaultScreen(X)
 
// Create black (foreground) graphic context
foreground, _ := xproto.NewGcontextId(X)
mask := uint32(xproto.GcForeground | xproto.GcGraphicsExposures)
values := []uint32{screen.BlackPixel, 0}
xproto.CreateGC(X, foreground, xproto.Drawable(screen.Root), mask, values)
 
// Ask for our window's Id
win, _ := xproto.NewWindowId(X)
winDrawable := xproto.Drawable(win)
 
// Create the window
mask = uint32(xproto.CwBackPixel | xproto.CwEventMask)
values = []uint32{screen.WhitePixel, xproto.EventMaskExposure}
xproto.CreateWindow(X, // Connection
screen.RootDepth, // Depth
win, // Window Id
screen.Root, // Parent Window
0, 0, // x, y
150, 150, // width, height
10, // border_width
xproto.WindowClassInputOutput, // class
screen.RootVisual, // visual
mask, values) // masks
 
// Map the window on the screen
xproto.MapWindow(X, win)
 
for {
evt, err := X.WaitForEvent()
switch evt.(type) {
case xproto.ExposeEvent:
/* We draw the points */
xproto.PolyPoint(X, xproto.CoordModeOrigin, winDrawable, foreground, points)
 
/* We draw the polygonal line */
xproto.PolyLine(X, xproto.CoordModePrevious, winDrawable, foreground, polyline)
 
/* We draw the segments */
xproto.PolySegment(X, winDrawable, foreground, segments)
 
/* We draw the rectangles */
xproto.PolyRectangle(X, winDrawable, foreground, rectangles)
 
/* We draw the arcs */
xproto.PolyArc(X, winDrawable, foreground, arcs)
 
default:
/* Unknown event type, ignore it */
}
 
if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}
}
return
}

Screen capture:

Go-x11.png

Groovy[edit]

Run:

groovy WindowCreation.groovy
import javax.swing.*
import java.awt.*
import java.awt.event.WindowAdapter
import java.awt.event.WindowEvent
import java.awt.geom.Rectangle2D
 
class WindowCreation extends JApplet implements Runnable {
void paint(Graphics g) {
(g as Graphics2D).with {
setStroke(new BasicStroke(2.0f))
drawString("Hello Groovy!", 20, 20)
setPaint(Color.blue)
draw(new Rectangle2D.Double(10d, 50d, 30d, 30d))
}
}
 
void run() {
new JFrame("Groovy Window Demo").with {
addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
System.exit(0)
}
})
 
getContentPane().add("Center", new WindowCreation())
pack()
setSize(new Dimension(150, 150))
setVisible(true)
}
}
}

GUISS[edit]

Graphical User Interface Support Script is really a language for operating a computer, rather than programming one, so we cannot do this via X11 libraries. The example uses leafpad for our open window, and the box symbols to enclose our text:

Start,Programs,Applications,Editors,Leafpad,Textbox,
Type:[openbox]Hello World[pling][closebox]

Haskell[edit]

Using
Library: X11
from HackageDB
import Graphics.X11.Xlib
import Control.Concurrent (threadDelay)
 
main = do
display <- openDisplay ""
let defScr = defaultScreen display
rw <- rootWindow display defScr
 
xwin <- createSimpleWindow display rw
0 0 400 200 1
(blackPixel display defScr)
(whitePixel display defScr)
 
setTextProperty display xwin "Rosetta Code: X11 simple window" wM_NAME
 
mapWindow display xwin
 
sync display False
threadDelay (5000000)
 
destroyWindow display xwin
closeDisplay display
 

Icon and Unicon[edit]

Icon and Unicon provide a portable graphics implementation that does not rely upon a toolkit. The intent is to be platform independent and the same code runs on multiple platforms without change and producing results with only minor variations. Icon and Unicon graphics are implemented in X-Windows as well as MS-Windows and others. There are additional 3D graphics capabilities implemented using opengl.

procedure main()
W1 := open("X-Window","g","size=250,250","bg=black","fg=red") | stop("unable to open window")
FillRectangle(W1,50,50,150,150)
WDone(W1)
end
 
link graphics

graphics.icn provides graphics

Additionally, the WOpen procedure and Window.App methods are available.

Java[edit]

Library: Java
compile
javac WindowExample.java

run

java WindowExample
import javax.swing.JFrame;
import javax.swing.SwingUtilities;
 
public class WindowExample {
 
public static void main(String[] args) {
Runnable runnable = new Runnable() {
public void run() {
createAndShow();
}
};
SwingUtilities.invokeLater(runnable);
}
 
static void createAndShow() {
JFrame frame = new JFrame("Hello World");
frame.setSize(640,480);
frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
frame.setVisible(true);
}
}
The previous example works but doesn't write any text or draw any box; the following does both.
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.awt.geom.*;
import javax.swing.*;
 
public class WindowExample extends JApplet {
public void paint(Graphics g) {
Graphics2D g2 = (Graphics2D) g;
 
g2.setStroke(new BasicStroke(2.0f));
g2.drawString("Hello java", 20, 20);
g2.setPaint(Color.blue);
g2.draw(new Rectangle2D.Double(40, 40, 20, 20));
}
 
public static void main(String s[]) {
JFrame f = new JFrame("ShapesDemo2D");
f.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {System.exit(0);}
});
JApplet applet = new ShapesDemo2D();
f.getContentPane().add("Center", applet);
f.pack();
f.setSize(new Dimension(150, 150));
f.setVisible(true);
}
}

Julia[edit]

This was based on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xlib, and mostly quoted from from the XLib.jl test2() testing code function.

 
using Xlib
 
function x11demo()
# Open connection to the server.
dpy = XOpenDisplay(C_NULL)
dpy == C_NULL && error("unable to open display")
scr = DefaultScreen(dpy)
 
# Create a window.
win = XCreateSimpleWindow(dpy, RootWindow(dpy, scr), 10, 10, 300, 100, 1,
BlackPixel(dpy, scr), WhitePixel(dpy, scr))
 
# Select the kind of events we are interested in.
XSelectInput(dpy, win, ExposureMask | KeyPressMask)
 
# Show or in x11 terms map window.
XMapWindow(dpy, win)
 
# Run event loop.
evt = Ref(XEvent())
while true
XNextEvent(dpy, evt)
 
# Draw or redraw the window.
if EventType(evt) == Expose
XFillRectangle(dpy, win, DefaultGC(dpy, scr), 24, 24, 16, 16)
XDrawString(dpy, win, DefaultGC(dpy, scr), 50, 50, "Hello, World! Press any key to exit.")
end
 
# Exit whenever a key is pressed.
if EventType(evt) == KeyPress
break
end
end
 
# Shutdown server connection
XCloseDisplay(dpy)
end
 
x11demo()
 

Kotlin[edit]

Translation of: C
Library: Xlib
// Kotlin Native v0.3
 
import kotlinx.cinterop.*
import Xlib.*
 
fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val msg = "Hello, World!"
val d = XOpenDisplay(null)
if (d == null) {
println("Cannot open display")
return
}
 
val s = XDefaultScreen(d)
val w = XCreateSimpleWindow(d, XRootWindow(d, s), 10, 10, 160, 160, 1,
XBlackPixel(d, s), XWhitePixel(d, s))
XSelectInput(d, w, ExposureMask or KeyPressMask)
XMapWindow(d, w)
val e = nativeHeap.alloc<XEvent>()
 
while (true) {
XNextEvent(d, e.ptr)
if (e.type == Expose) {
XFillRectangle(d, w, XDefaultGC(d, s), 55, 40, 50, 50)
XDrawString(d, w, XDefaultGC(d, s), 45, 120, msg, msg.length)
}
else if (e.type == KeyPress) break
}
 
XCloseDisplay(d)
nativeHeap.free(e)
}

M2000 Interpreter[edit]

M2000 interpteter is a Visual Basic 6 (vb6) gui application, so we can't use X11. When we use Wine, connecting to X11 may occur but this is invisible for interpreter scope.

Ao for this task we use the M2000 way to make a form and do something on it.

 
\\ M2000 froms (windows) based on a flat, empty with no title bar, vb6 window and a user control.
\\ title bar is a user control in M2000 form
\\ On linux, wine application run M2000 interpreter traslating vb6 calls to window system.
Module SquareAndText2Window {
Const black=0, white=15
Declare form1 form
\\ defaultwindow title is the name of variable,here is: form1
Rem With form1, "Title", "A title for this window"
Method form1,"move", 2000,3000,10000,8000 ' in twips
layer form1 {
Cls white
Font "Verdana"
Rem Window 12 , 10000,8000; ' hide modr 13 using a REM before
Rem
Mode 12 ' 12 in pt
Cls white, 2 ' fill white, set third raw for top of scrolling frame
Pen black
Move 1000,2000 ' absolute coordinated in twips - use Step for relative coordinates
\\ polygon use relative coordinates in twips
polygon white, 1000,0,0,-1000,-1000,0,0,-1000
\\ write text using graphic coordinates
Move 1000, 3000 : Legend "Hello World", "Arial", 12
\\ write text using layer as console (font Verdana)
Print @(15,5),"Goodbye Wolrd"
\\ 9120 7920 if we use window 12,10000, 8000 (cut exactly for console use)
\\ 10000 8000 if we use Mode 12
\\ scale.y include window height (including header)
\\ the layer extend bellow
Print scale.x, scale.y
}
\\ show form1 modal (continue to next line when we close the window)
Method form1,"Show", 1
\\ closing meand hide in M2000
wait 1000 ' in msec
Method form1,"move", random(2000, 10000),random(3000, 8000)
\\ now show again
Method form1,"Show", 1
\\ now we close the form, releasing resources
Declare form1 Nothing
}
SquareAndText2Window
 

Mathematica/Wolfram Language[edit]

Note that GUIKit is a high-level wrapper for Swing.

Needs["GUIKit`"]
ref = GUIRun[Widget["Panel", {
Widget[
"ImageLabel", {"data" ->
Script[ExportString[Graphics[Rectangle[{0, 0}, {1, 1}]],
"GIF"]]}],
Widget["Label", { "text" -> "Hello World!"}]}
]]

Nim[edit]

import x11/[xlib,xutil,x]
 
const
windowWidth = 1000
windowHeight = 600
borderWidth = 5
eventMask = ButtonPressMask or KeyPressMask or ExposureMask
 
var
display: PDisplay
window: Window
deleteMessage: Atom
graphicsContext: GC
 
proc init() =
display = XOpenDisplay(nil)
if display == nil:
quit "Failed to open display"
 
let
screen = XDefaultScreen(display)
rootWindow = XRootWindow(display, screen)
foregroundColor = XBlackPixel(display, screen)
backgroundColor = XWhitePixel(display, screen)
 
window = XCreateSimpleWindow(display, rootWindow, -1, -1, windowWidth,
windowHeight, borderWidth, foregroundColor, backgroundColor)
 
discard XSetStandardProperties(display, window, "X11 Example", "window", 0,
nil, 0, nil)
 
discard XSelectInput(display, window, eventMask)
discard XMapWindow(display, window)
 
deleteMessage = XInternAtom(display, "WM_DELETE_WINDOW", false.XBool)
discard XSetWMProtocols(display, window, deleteMessage.addr, 1)
 
graphicsContext = XDefaultGC(display, screen)
 
 
proc drawWindow() =
const text = "Hello, Nim programmers."
discard XDrawString(display, window, graphicsContext, 10, 50, text, text.len)
discard XFillRectangle(display, window, graphicsContext, 20, 20, 10, 10)
 
 
proc mainLoop() =
## Process events until the quit event is received
var event: XEvent
while true:
discard XNextEvent(display, event.addr)
case event.theType
of Expose:
drawWindow()
of ClientMessage:
if cast[Atom](event.xclient.data.l[0]) == deleteMessage:
break
of KeyPress:
let key = XLookupKeysym(cast[PXKeyEvent](event.addr), 0)
if key != 0:
echo "Key ", key, " pressed"
of ButtonPressMask:
echo "Mouse button ", event.xbutton.button, " pressed at ",
event.xbutton.x, ",", event.xbutton.y
else:
discard
 
 
proc main() =
init()
mainLoop()
discard XDestroyWindow(display, window)
discard XCloseDisplay(display)
 
 
main()

OCaml[edit]

Library: OCaml-Xlib

execute as a script with:

ocaml -I +Xlib Xlib.cma script.ml

or compile to native code:

ocamlopt -I +Xlib Xlib.cmxa prog.ml -o prog

or to make a standalone script add these lines at the beginning of the file:

#!/usr/bin/env ocaml
#directory "+Xlib"
#load "Xlib.cma"
open Xlib
 
let () =
let d = xOpenDisplay "" in
let s = xDefaultScreen d in
let w = xCreateSimpleWindow d (xRootWindow d s) 10 10 100 100 1
(xBlackPixel d s) (xWhitePixel d s) in
xSelectInput d w [ExposureMask; KeyPressMask];
xMapWindow d w;
 
let msg = "Hello, World!" in
 
let rec main_loop() =
match xEventType(xNextEventFun d) with
| Expose ->
xFillRectangle d w (xDefaultGC d s) 20 20 10 10;
xDrawString d w (xDefaultGC d s) 10 50 msg;
main_loop()
| KeyPress -> () (* exit main loop *)
| _ -> main_loop()
in
main_loop();
xCloseDisplay d;
;;

Pascal[edit]

Translation of: C

from wiki.freepascal.org/X11#Examples. Compiled with Freepascal 2.6.4-32

program xshowwindow;
{$mode objfpc}{$H+}
 
uses
xlib, x, ctypes;
 
procedure ModalShowX11Window(AMsg: string);
var
d: PDisplay;
w: TWindow;
e: TXEvent;
msg: PChar;
s: cint;
begin
msg := PChar(AMsg);
 
{ open connection with the server }
d := XOpenDisplay(nil);
if (d = nil) then
begin
WriteLn('[ModalShowX11Window] Cannot open display');
exit;
end;
s := DefaultScreen(d);
 
{ create window }
w := XCreateSimpleWindow(d, RootWindow(d, s), 10, 10, 100, 50, 1,
BlackPixel(d, s), WhitePixel(d, s));
 
{ select kind of events we are interested in }
XSelectInput(d, w, ExposureMask or KeyPressMask);
 
{ map (show) the window }
XMapWindow(d, w);
 
{ event loop }
while (True) do
begin
XNextEvent(d, @e);
{ draw or redraw the window }
if (e._type = Expose) then
begin
XFillRectangle(d, w, DefaultGC(d, s), 0, 10, 100, 3);
XFillRectangle(d, w, DefaultGC(d, s), 0, 30, 100, 3);
XDrawString (d, w, DefaultGC(d, s), 5, 25, msg, strlen(msg));
end;
{ exit on key press }
if (e._type = KeyPress) then Break;
end;
 
{ close connection to server }
XCloseDisplay(d);
end;
 
begin
ModalShowX11Window('Hello, World!');
end.
 

Perl[edit]

X11::Protocol[edit]

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
use strict;
use X11::Protocol;
 
my $X = X11::Protocol->new;
 
my $window = $X->new_rsrc;
$X->CreateWindow ($window,
$X->root, # parent window
'InputOutput', # class
0, # depth, copy from parent
0, # visual, copy from parent
0,0, # X,Y (window manager will override)
300,100, # width,height
0, # border width
background_pixel => $X->black_pixel,
event_mask => $X->pack_event_mask('Exposure',
'ButtonPress'),
);
 
my $gc = $X->new_rsrc;
$X->CreateGC ($gc, $window,
foreground => $X->white_pixel);
 
$X->{'event_handler'} = sub {
my %event = @_;
my $event_name = $event{'name'};
 
if ($event_name eq 'Expose') {
$X->PolyRectangle ($window, $gc, [ 10,10, # x,y top-left corner
30,20 ]); # width,height
$X->PolyText8 ($window, $gc,
10, 55, # X,Y of text baseline
[ 0, # delta X
'Hello ... click mouse button to exit.' ]);
 
} elsif ($event_name eq 'ButtonPress') {
exit 0;
}
};
 
$X->MapWindow ($window);
for (;;) {
$X->handle_input;
}

Phix[edit]

Translation of: TXR

See Window_creation#Phix

PicoLisp[edit]

The following script works in the 32-bit version, using inlined C code

#!/usr/bin/picolisp /usr/lib/picolisp/lib.l
 
(load "@lib/misc.l" "@lib/gcc.l")
 
(gcc "x11" '("-lX11") 'simpleWin)
 
#include <X11/Xlib.h>
 
any simpleWin(any ex) {
any x = cdr(ex);
int dx, dy;
Display *disp;
int scrn;
Window win;
XEvent ev;
 
x = cdr(ex), dx = (int)evCnt(ex,x);
x = cdr(x), dy = (int)evCnt(ex,x);
x = evSym(cdr(x));
if (disp = XOpenDisplay(NULL)) {
char msg[bufSize(x)];
 
bufString(x, msg);
scrn = DefaultScreen(disp);
win = XCreateSimpleWindow(disp, RootWindow(disp,scrn), 0, 0, dx, dy,
1, BlackPixel(disp,scrn), WhitePixel(disp,scrn) );
XSelectInput(disp, win, ExposureMask | KeyPressMask | ButtonPressMask);
XMapWindow(disp, win);
for (;;) {
XNextEvent(disp, &ev);
switch (ev.type) {
case Expose:
XDrawRectangle(disp, win, DefaultGC(disp, scrn), 10, 10, dx-20, dy-20);
XDrawString(disp, win, DefaultGC(disp, scrn), 30, 40, msg, strlen(msg));
break;
case KeyPress:
case ButtonPress:
XCloseDisplay(disp);
return Nil;
}
}
}
return mkStr("Can't open Display");
}
/**/
 
(simpleWin 300 200 "Hello World")
(bye)

Python[edit]

Xlib[edit]

This example needs review by someone who knows about: X11
Note (stolen from CLX example): This example was written in near-total ignorance of X11 by consulting the python-xlib's examples (included in its distribution) to find equivalents for the parts of the C example.

If you know X11, please review this example and, as necessary, improve it or describe what should be done for someone who knows the language.

Translation of: C
Library: python-xlib

Download Python X library from http://sourceforge.net/projects/python-xlib/ . python-xlib is a pure python library therefore the example should work anywhere where python does and where there is an X server. Run:

  • python xlib_hello_world.py
from Xlib import X, display
 
class Window:
def __init__(self, display, msg):
self.display = display
self.msg = msg
 
self.screen = self.display.screen()
self.window = self.screen.root.create_window(
10, 10, 100, 100, 1,
self.screen.root_depth,
background_pixel=self.screen.white_pixel,
event_mask=X.ExposureMask | X.KeyPressMask,
)
self.gc = self.window.create_gc(
foreground = self.screen.black_pixel,
background = self.screen.white_pixel,
)
 
self.window.map()
 
def loop(self):
while True:
e = self.display.next_event()
 
if e.type == X.Expose:
self.window.fill_rectangle(self.gc, 20, 20, 10, 10)
self.window.draw_text(self.gc, 10, 50, self.msg)
elif e.type == X.KeyPress:
raise SystemExit
 
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
Window(display.Display(), "Hello, World!").loop()

XCB[edit]

Library: python-xcb
import xcb
from xcb.xproto import *
import xcb.render
 
def main():
conn = xcb.connect()
conn.render = conn(xcb.render.key)
 
setup = conn.get_setup()
root = setup.roots[0].root
depth = setup.roots[0].root_depth
visual = setup.roots[0].root_visual
white = setup.roots[0].white_pixel
 
window = conn.generate_id()
conn.core.CreateWindow(depth, window, root,
0, 0, 640, 480, 0,
WindowClass.InputOutput,
visual,
CW.BackPixel | CW.EventMask,
[ white, EventMask.Exposure |
EventMask.KeyPress ])
 
conn.core.MapWindow(window)
conn.flush()
 
while True:
event = conn.wait_for_event()
 
if isinstance(event, ExposeEvent):
color = (0, 0, 65535, 65535)
rectangle = (20, 20, 40, 40)
# TODO, fixme:
# I haven't been able to find what I should put for the parameter "op"
# conn.render.FillRectangles(op, window, color, 1, rectangle)
conn.flush()
 
elif isinstance(event, KeyPressEvent):
break
 
conn.disconnect()
 
main()

Racket[edit]

Using Racket's GUI which is implemented using gtk. It's not low level, but OTOH it works on Windows and OS X too.

#lang racket/gui
 
(define frame (new frame%
[label "Example"]
[width 300]
[height 300]))
(new canvas% [parent frame]
[paint-callback
(lambda (canvas dc)
(send dc set-scale 3 3)
(send dc set-text-foreground "blue")
(send dc draw-text "Don't Panic!" 0 0))])
(send frame show #t)

Raku[edit]

(formerly Perl 6)

Translation of: C

There is not yet a X11 library in Raku but we can write the minimal C mappings for this task.

use NativeCall;
 
class Display is repr('CStruct') {
has int32 $!screen;
has int32 $!window;
}
class GC is repr('CStruct') {
has int32 $!context;
}
class XEvent is repr('CStruct') {
has int32 $.type;
method init { $!type = 0 }
}
 
sub XOpenDisplay(Str $name = ':0') returns Display is native('X11') { * }
sub XDefaultScreen(Display $) returns int32 is native('X11') { * }
sub XRootWindow(Display $, int32 $screen_number) returns int32 is native('X11') { * }
sub XBlackPixel(Display $, int32 $screen_number) returns int32 is native('X11') { * }
sub XWhitePixel(Display $, int32 $screen_number) returns int32 is native('X11') { * }
sub XCreateSimpleWindow(
Display $, int32 $parent_window, int32 $x, int32 $y,
int32 $width, int32 $height, int32 $border_width,
int32 $border, int32 $background
) returns int32 is native('X11') { * }
sub XMapWindow(Display $, int32 $window) is native('X11') { * }
sub XSelectInput(Display $, int32 $window, int32 $mask) is native('X11') { * }
sub XFillRectangle(
Display $, int32 $window, GC $, int32 $x, int32 $y, int32 $width, int32 $height
) is native('X11') { * }
sub XDrawString(
Display $, int32 $window, GC $, int32 $x, int32 $y, Str $, int32 $str_length
) is native('X11') { * }
sub XDefaultGC(Display $, int32 $screen) returns GC is native('X11') { * }
sub XNextEvent(Display $, XEvent $e) is native('X11') { * }
sub XCloseDisplay(Display $) is native('X11') { * }
 
my Display $display = XOpenDisplay()
or die "Can not open display";
 
my int $screen = XDefaultScreen($display);
my int $window = XCreateSimpleWindow(
$display,
XRootWindow($display, $screen),
10, 10, 100, 100, 1,
XBlackPixel($display, $screen), XWhitePixel($display, $screen)
);
XSelectInput($display, $window, 1 +< 15 +| 1);
XMapWindow($display, $window);
 
my Str $msg = 'Hello, World!';
my XEvent $e .= new; $e.init;
loop {
XNextEvent($display, $e);
if $e.type == 12 {
XFillRectangle($display, $window, XDefaultGC($display, $screen), 20, 20, 10, 10);
XDrawString($display, $window, XDefaultGC($display, $screen), 10, 50, $msg, my int $ = $msg.chars);
}
elsif $e.type == 2 {
last;
}
}
XCloseDisplay($display);

Scala[edit]

Library: Scala
import scala.swing.{ MainFrame, SimpleSwingApplication }
import scala.swing.Swing.pair2Dimension
 
object WindowExample extends SimpleSwingApplication {
def top = new MainFrame {
title = "Hello!"
centerOnScreen
preferredSize = ((200, 150))
}
}

Standard ML[edit]

Works with PolyML

open XWindows ;
val dp = XOpenDisplay "" ;
val w = XCreateSimpleWindow (RootWindow dp) origin (Area {x=0,y=0,w=400,h=300}) 3 0 0xffffff ;
XMapWindow w;
XFlush dp ;
XDrawString w (DefaultGC dp) (XPoint {x=10,y=50}) "Hello World!" ;
XFlush dp ;

Tcl[edit]

Tcl does not come with a low-level connection to the X protocol, as it has long been distributed with Tk which offers a much higher-level interface (and which is portable to other platforms too). This means that the interface has to be crafted directly. This can be done with either SWIG or critcl. This example shows how to do it the latter way:

Low level interface[edit]

Library: critcl
package provide xlib 1
package require critcl
 
critcl::clibraries -L/usr/X11/lib -lX11
critcl::ccode {
#include <X11/Xlib.h>
static Display *d;
static GC gc;
}
 
# Display connection functions
critcl::cproc XOpenDisplay {Tcl_Interp* interp char* name} ok {
d = XOpenDisplay(name[0] ? name : NULL);
if (d == NULL) {
Tcl_AppendResult(interp, "cannot open display", NULL);
return TCL_ERROR;
}
gc = DefaultGC(d, DefaultScreen(d));
return TCL_OK;
}
critcl::cproc XCloseDisplay {} void {
XCloseDisplay(d);
}
 
# Basic window functions
critcl::cproc XCreateSimpleWindow {
int x int y int width int height int events
} int {
int s = DefaultScreen(d);
Window w = XCreateSimpleWindow(d, RootWindow(d,s), x, y, width, height, 0,
BlackPixel(d,s), WhitePixel(d,s));
XSelectInput(d, w, ExposureMask | events);
return (int) w;
}
critcl::cproc XDestroyWindow {int w} void {
XDestroyWindow(d, (Window) w);
}
critcl::cproc XMapWindow {int w} void {
XMapWindow(d, (Window) w);
}
critcl::cproc XUnmapWindow {int w} void {
XUnmapWindow(d, (Window) w);
}
 
# Event receiver
critcl::cproc XNextEvent {Tcl_Interp* interp} char* {
XEvent e;
XNextEvent(d, &e);
switch (e.type) {
case Expose: return "type expose";
case KeyPress: return "type key";
/* etc. This is a cheap hack version. */
default: return "type ?";
}
}
 
# Painting functions
critcl::cproc XFillRectangle {int w int x int y int width int height} void {
XFillRectangle(d, (Window)w, gc, x, y, width, height);
}
critcl::cproc XDrawString {int w int x int y Tcl_Obj* msg} void {
int len;
const char *str = Tcl_GetStringFromObj(msg, &len);
XDrawString(d, (Window)w, gc, x, y, str, len);
}

Note that this only does enough for this demo. A full adaptation is too long for RosettaCode...

This could then be used like this:

package require xlib
 
XOpenDisplay {}
set w [XCreateSimpleWindow 10 10 100 100 1]
XMapWindow $w
while {[lindex [XNextEvent] 0] == "expose"} {
XFillRectangle $w 20 20 10 10
XDrawString $w 10 50 "Hello, World!"
}
XDestroyWindow $w
XCloseDisplay

Higher level interface[edit]

Just because there is a low level package does not mean that it is pleasant to use from Tcl code. Therefore this second package wraps it up inside a higher-level package that provides a more natural way of interacting.

Works with: Tcl version 8.6
or
Library: TclOO
package require TclOO
package provide x11 1
 
namespace eval ::x {
namespace export {[a-z]*}
namespace ensemble create
variable mask
array set mask {
KeyPress 1
KeyRelease 2
ButtonPress 4
ButtonRelease 8
}
 
proc display {script} {
XOpenDisplay {}
catch {uplevel 1 $script} msg opts
XCloseDisplay
return -options $opts $msg
}
proc eventloop {var handlers} {
upvar 1 $var v
while 1 {
set v [XNextEvent]
uplevel 1 [list switch [dict get $v type] $handlers]
}
}
 
oo::class create window {
variable w
constructor {x y width height events} {
set m 0
variable ::x::mask
foreach e $events {catch {incr m $mask($e)}}
set w [XCreateSimpleWindow $x $y $width $height $m]
}
method map {} {
XMapWindow $w
}
method unmap {} {
XUnmapWindow $w
}
method fill {x y width height} {
XFillRectangle $w $x $y $width $height
}
method text {x y string} {
XDrawString $w $x $y $string
}
destructor {
XDestroyWindow $w
}
}
}

This script puts the pieces together to carry out the details of the task.

package require x11
 
# With a display connection open, create and map a window
x display {
set w [x window new 10 10 100 100 KeyPress]
$w map
 
x eventloop ev {
expose {
# Paint the window
$w fill 20 20 10 10
$w text 10 50 "Hello, World!"
}
key {
# Quit the event loop
break
}
}
 
$w destroy
}

Improving this by adding more sophisticated event handling and more window methods is left as an exercise.

TXR[edit]

See Window_creation#TXR.

Wren[edit]

Translation of: C
Library: Xlib


As it's not currently possible for Wren-cli to access Xlib directly, we embed a Wren script in a C application to complete this task.

/* window_creation_x11.wren */
 
var KeyPressMask = 1 << 0
var ExposureMask = 1 << 15
var KeyPress = 2
var Expose = 12
 
foreign class XGC {
construct default(display, screenNumber) {}
}
 
foreign class XEvent {
construct new() {}
 
foreign eventType
}
 
foreign class XDisplay {
construct openDisplay(displayName) {}
 
foreign defaultScreen()
 
foreign rootWindow(screenNumber)
 
foreign blackPixel(screenNumber)
 
foreign whitePixel(screenNumber)
 
foreign selectInput(w, eventMask)
 
foreign mapWindow(w)
 
foreign closeDisplay()
 
foreign nextEvent(eventReturn)
 
foreign createSimpleWindow(parent, x, y, width, height, borderWidth, border, background)
 
foreign fillRectangle(d, gc, x, y, width, height)
 
foreign drawString(d, gc, x, y, string, length)
}
 
var xd = XDisplay.openDisplay("")
if (xd == 0) {
System.print("Cannot open display.")
return
}
var s = xd.defaultScreen()
var w = xd.createSimpleWindow(xd.rootWindow(s), 10, 10, 100, 100, 1, xd.blackPixel(s), xd.whitePixel(s))
xd.selectInput(w, ExposureMask | KeyPressMask)
xd.mapWindow(w)
var msg = "Hello, World!"
var e = XEvent.new()
while (true) {
xd.nextEvent(e)
var gc = XGC.default(xd, s)
if (e.eventType == Expose) {
xd.fillRectangle(w, gc, 20, 20, 10, 10)
xd.drawString(w, gc, 10, 50, msg, msg.count)
}
if (e.eventType == KeyPress) break
}
xd.closeDisplay()


We now embed this Wren script in the following C program, compile and run it.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <X11/Xlib.h>
#include "wren.h"
 
/* C <=> Wren interface functions */
 
void C_displayAllocate(WrenVM* vm) {
Display** pdisplay = (Display**)wrenSetSlotNewForeign(vm, 0, 0, sizeof(Display*));
const char *displayName = wrenGetSlotString(vm, 1);
if (displayName == "") {
*pdisplay = XOpenDisplay(NULL);
} else {
*pdisplay = XOpenDisplay(displayName);
}
}
 
void C_gcAllocate(WrenVM* vm) {
GC *pgc = (GC *)wrenSetSlotNewForeign(vm, 0, 0, sizeof(GC));
Display* display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 1);
int s = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 2);
*pgc = DefaultGC(display, s);
}
 
void C_eventAllocate(WrenVM* vm) {
wrenSetSlotNewForeign(vm, 0, 0, sizeof(XEvent));
}
 
void C_eventType(WrenVM* vm) {
XEvent e = *(XEvent *)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
wrenSetSlotDouble(vm, 0, (double)e.type);
}
 
void C_defaultScreen(WrenVM* vm) {
Display* display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
int screenNumber = DefaultScreen(display);
wrenSetSlotDouble(vm, 0, (double)screenNumber);
}
 
void C_rootWindow(WrenVM* vm) {
Display* display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
int screenNumber = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 1);
Window w = RootWindow(display, screenNumber);
wrenSetSlotDouble(vm, 0, (double)w);
}
 
void C_blackPixel(WrenVM* vm) {
Display* display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
int screenNumber = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 1);
unsigned long p = BlackPixel(display, screenNumber);
wrenSetSlotDouble(vm, 0, (double)p);
}
 
void C_whitePixel(WrenVM* vm) {
Display* display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
int screenNumber = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 1);
unsigned long p = WhitePixel(display, screenNumber);
wrenSetSlotDouble(vm, 0, (double)p);
}
 
void C_selectInput(WrenVM* vm) {
Display* display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
Window w = (Window)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 1);
long eventMask = (long)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 2);
XSelectInput(display, w, eventMask);
}
 
void C_mapWindow(WrenVM* vm) {
Display* display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
Window w = (Window)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 1);
XMapWindow(display, w);
}
 
void C_closeDisplay(WrenVM* vm) {
Display* display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
XCloseDisplay(display);
}
 
void C_nextEvent(WrenVM* vm) {
Display* display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
XEvent* pe = (XEvent*)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 1);
XNextEvent(display, pe);
}
 
void C_createSimpleWindow(WrenVM* vm) {
Display *display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
Window parent = (Window)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 1);
int x = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 2);
int y = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 3);
unsigned int width = (unsigned int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 4);
unsigned int height = (unsigned int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 5);
unsigned int borderWidth = (unsigned int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 6);
unsigned long border = (unsigned long)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 7);
unsigned long background = (unsigned long)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 8);
Window w = XCreateSimpleWindow(display, parent, x, y, width, height, borderWidth, border, background);
wrenSetSlotDouble(vm, 0, (double)w);
}
 
void C_fillRectangle(WrenVM* vm) {
Display *display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
Drawable d = (Drawable)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 1);
GC gc = *(GC *)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 2);
int x = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 3);
int y = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 4);
unsigned int width = (unsigned int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 5);
unsigned int height = (unsigned int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 6);
XFillRectangle(display, d, gc, x, y, width, height);
}
 
void C_drawString(WrenVM* vm) {
Display *display = *(Display**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
Drawable d = (Drawable)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 1);
GC gc = *(GC *)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 2);
int x = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 3);
int y = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 4);
const char *string = wrenGetSlotString(vm, 5);
int length = (int)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 6);
XDrawString(display, d, gc, x, y, string, length);
}
 
WrenForeignClassMethods bindForeignClass(WrenVM* vm, const char* module, const char* className) {
WrenForeignClassMethods methods;
methods.finalize = NULL;
if (strcmp(className, "XDisplay") == 0) {
methods.allocate = C_displayAllocate;
} else if (strcmp(className, "XGC") == 0) {
methods.allocate = C_gcAllocate;
} else if (strcmp(className, "XEvent") == 0) {
methods.allocate = C_eventAllocate;
} else {
methods.allocate = NULL;
}
return methods;
}
 
WrenForeignMethodFn bindForeignMethod(
WrenVM* vm,
const char* module,
const char* className,
bool isStatic,
const char* signature) {
if (strcmp(module, "main") == 0) {
if (strcmp(className, "XEvent") == 0) {
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "eventType") == 0) return C_eventType;
} else if (strcmp(className, "XDisplay") == 0) {
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "defaultScreen()") == 0) return C_defaultScreen;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "rootWindow(_)") == 0) return C_rootWindow;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "blackPixel(_)") == 0) return C_blackPixel;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "whitePixel(_)") == 0) return C_whitePixel;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "selectInput(_,_)") == 0) return C_selectInput;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "mapWindow(_)") == 0) return C_mapWindow;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "closeDisplay()") == 0) return C_closeDisplay;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "nextEvent(_)") == 0) return C_nextEvent;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "createSimpleWindow(_,_,_,_,_,_,_,_)") == 0) return C_createSimpleWindow;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "fillRectangle(_,_,_,_,_,_)") == 0) return C_fillRectangle;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "drawString(_,_,_,_,_,_)") == 0) return C_drawString;
}
}
return NULL;
}
 
static void writeFn(WrenVM* vm, const char* text) {
printf("%s", text);
}
 
void errorFn(WrenVM* vm, WrenErrorType errorType, const char* module, const int line, const char* msg) {
switch (errorType) {
case WREN_ERROR_COMPILE:
printf("[%s line %d] [Error] %s\n", module, line, msg);
break;
case WREN_ERROR_STACK_TRACE:
printf("[%s line %d] in %s\n", module, line, msg);
break;
case WREN_ERROR_RUNTIME:
printf("[Runtime Error] %s\n", msg);
break;
}
}
 
char *readFile(const char *fileName) {
FILE *f = fopen(fileName, "r");
fseek(f, 0, SEEK_END);
long fsize = ftell(f);
rewind(f);
char *script = malloc(fsize + 1);
fread(script, 1, fsize, f);
fclose(f);
script[fsize] = 0;
return script;
}
 
int main(int argc, char **argv) {
WrenConfiguration config;
wrenInitConfiguration(&config);
config.writeFn = &writeFn;
config.errorFn = &errorFn;
config.bindForeignClassFn = &bindForeignClass;
config.bindForeignMethodFn = &bindForeignMethod;
WrenVM* vm = wrenNewVM(&config);
const char* module = "main";
const char* fileName = "window_creation_x11.wren";
char *script = readFile(fileName);
WrenInterpretResult result = wrenInterpret(vm, module, script);
switch (result) {
case WREN_RESULT_COMPILE_ERROR:
printf("Compile Error!\n");
break;
case WREN_RESULT_RUNTIME_ERROR:
printf("Runtime Error!\n");
break;
case WREN_RESULT_SUCCESS:
break;
}
wrenFreeVM(vm);
free(script);
return 0;
}
Output:
Same as C example.