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# Bitmap

(Redirected from Basic bitmap storage)
Bitmap
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Show a basic storage type to handle a simple RGB raster graphics image, and some primitive associated functions.

If possible provide a function to allocate an uninitialised image, given its width and height, and provide 3 additional functions:

•   one to fill an image with a plain RGB color,
•   one to set a given pixel with a color,
•   one to get the color of a pixel.

(If there are specificities about the storage or the allocation, explain those.)

These functions are used as a base for the articles in the category raster graphics operations, and a basic output function to check the results is available in the article write ppm file.

## 11l

Translation of: Python
`T Colour   Byte r, g, b    F (r, g, b)      .r = r      .g = g      .b = b    F ==(other)      R .r == other.r & .g == other.g & .b == other.b V black = Colour(0, 0, 0)V white = Colour(255, 255, 255) T Bitmap   Int width, height   Colour background   [[Colour]] map    F (width = 40, height = 40, background = white)      assert(width > 0 & height > 0)      .width = width      .height = height      .background = background      .map = [[background] * width] * height    F fillrect(x, y, width, height, colour = black)      assert(x >= 0 & y >= 0 & width > 0 & height > 0)      L(h) 0 .< height         L(w) 0 .< width            .map[y + h][x + w] = colour    F chardisplay()      V txt = .map.map(row -> row.map(bit -> (I bit == @@.background {‘ ’} E ‘@’)).join(‘’))      txt = txt.map(row -> ‘|’row‘|’)      txt.insert(0, ‘+’(‘-’ * .width)‘+’)      txt.append(‘+’(‘-’ * .width)‘+’)      print(reversed(txt).join("\n"))    F set(x, y, colour = black)      .map[y][x] = colour    F get(x, y)      R .map[y][x] V bitmap = Bitmap(20, 10)bitmap.fillrect(4, 5, 6, 3)assert(bitmap.get(5, 5) == black)assert(bitmap.get(0, 1) == white)bitmap.set(0, 1, black)assert(bitmap.get(0, 1) == black)bitmap.chardisplay()`
Output:
```+--------------------+
|                    |
|                    |
|    @@@@@@          |
|    @@@@@@          |
|    @@@@@@          |
|                    |
|                    |
|                    |
|@                   |
|                    |
+--------------------+
```

## Action!

Part of the solution can be found in RGBIMAGE.ACT

`INCLUDE "H6:RGBIMAGE.ACT" ;from task Bitmap RGB black,yellow,violet,blue PROC DrawImage(RgbImage POINTER img BYTE x,y)  RGB c  BYTE i,j   FOR j=0 TO img.h-1  DO    FOR i=0 TO img.w-1    DO      GetRgbPixel(img,i,j,c)      IF RgbEqual(c,yellow) THEN        Color=1      ELSEIF RgbEqual(c,violet) THEN        Color=2      ELSEIF RgbEqual(c,blue) THEN        Color=3      ELSE        Color=0      FI      Plot(x+i,y+j)    OD  OD  RETURN PROC Main()  RgbImage img  BYTE CH=\$02FC,width=[80],height=[60]  BYTE ARRAY ptr(14400)  BYTE i,x,y,c   Graphics(7+16)  SetColor(0,13,12) ;yellow  SetColor(1,4,10)   ;violet  SetColor(2,8,6)   ;blue  SetColor(4,0,0)   ;black   RgbBlack(black)  RgbYellow(yellow)  RgbViolet(violet)  RgbBlue(blue)   InitRgbImage(img,width,height,ptr)  FillRgbImage(img,blue)   FOR i=1 TO 1000  DO    c=Rand(3)    x=Rand(width)    y=Rand(height)    IF c=0 THEN      SetRgbPixel(img,x,y,yellow)    ELSEIF c=1 THEN      SetRgbPixel(img,x,y,violet)    ELSE      SetRgbPixel(img,x,y,black)    FI  OD   DrawImage(img,(160-width)/2,(96-height)/2)   DO UNTIL CH#\$FF OD  CH=\$FFRETURN`
Output:

## ActionScript

ActionScript 3 has a BitmapData class (in the `flash.display` package) which can be used for storage and handling of bitmap images. To display these images, the Bitmap class can be used.

` // To import the BitmapData class:import flash.display.BitmapData; // Creates a new BitmapData object with a width of 500 pixels and a height of 300 pixels.var bitmap:BitmapData = new BitmapData(500, 300); // Create a BitmapData with transparency disallowedvar opaqueBitmap:BitmapData = new BitmapData(500, 300, false); // Bitmap with initial fill colour, as 0xAARRGGBB (default is white)var redFilledBitmap:BitmapData = new BitmapData(400, 300, true, 0xFFFF0000); // Get the colour value of the pixel at point (200, 200)bitmap.getPixel(200, 200)     // As 0xRRGGBBbitmap.getPixel32(200, 200)   // As 0xAARRGGBB // Set the colour value of the pixel at point (300, 200) to bluebitmap.setPixel(300, 200, 0x0000FF);       // As 0xRRGGBBbitmap.setPixel32(300, 200, 0xFF0000FF);   // As 0xAARRGGBB // Fill the bitmap with a given colour (as 0xAARRGGBB) after constructionbitmap.fillRect(bitmap.rect, 0xFF44FF44); `

The package interface:

`package Bitmap_Store is   type Luminance is mod 2**8;   type Pixel is record      R, G, B : Luminance := Luminance'First;   end record;   Black : constant Pixel := (others => Luminance'First);   White : constant Pixel := (others => Luminance'Last);   type Image is array (Positive range <>, Positive range <>) of Pixel;    procedure Fill (Picture : in out Image; Color : Pixel);    procedure Print (Picture : Image);    type Point is record      X, Y : Positive;   end record;end Bitmap_Store;`

The implementation of:

`with Ada.Text_IO;  use Ada.Text_IO; package body Bitmap_Store is    procedure Fill (Picture : in out Image; Color : Pixel) is   begin      for p of Picture loop x:= Color;end loop;   end Fill;    procedure Print (Picture : Image) is   begin      for I in Picture'Range (1) loop         for J in Picture'Range (2) loop               Put (if Picture (I, J) = White then ' ' else 'H');         end loop;         New_Line;      end loop;    end Print; end Bitmap_Store;`

This can be used like:

`use Bitmap_Store;  with Bitmap_Store;   ...   X : Image (1..64, 1..64);begin   Fill (X, (255, 255, 255));   X (1, 2) := (R => 255, others => 0);   X (3, 4) := X (1, 2);`

## ALGOL 68

Note: short and shorten need to be tuned (added or removed) to match the underlying graphic hardware colour depth.

Works with: ALGOL 68 version Revision 1 - one minor extension to language used - PRAGMA READ, similar to C's #include directive.
Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release algol68g-2.6.
File: prelude/Bitmap.a68
`# -*- coding: utf-8 -*- # MODE PIXEL = STRUCT(#SHORT# BITS red,green,blue);MODE POINT = STRUCT(INT x,y); MODE IMAGE = [0,0]PIXEL; # instance attributes # MODE CLASSIMAGE = STRUCT ( # class attributes #  PIXEL black, red, green, blue, white,  PROC (REF IMAGE)REF IMAGE init,  PROC (REF IMAGE, PIXEL)VOID fill,  PROC (REF IMAGE)VOID print,# virtual: #  REF PROC (REF IMAGE, POINT, POINT, PIXEL)VOID line,  REF PROC (REF IMAGE, POINT, INT, PIXEL)VOID circle,  REF PROC (REF IMAGE, POINT, POINT, POINT, POINT, PIXEL, UNION(INT, VOID))VOID cubic bezier); CLASSIMAGE class image = (  # black = # (#SHORTEN# 16r00, #SHORTEN# 16r00, #SHORTEN# 16r00),  # red   = # (#SHORTEN# 16rff, #SHORTEN# 16r00, #SHORTEN# 16r00),  # green = # (#SHORTEN# 16r00, #SHORTEN# 16rff, #SHORTEN# 16r00),  # blue  = # (#SHORTEN# 16r00, #SHORTEN# 16r00, #SHORTEN# 16rff),  # white = # (#SHORTEN# 16rff, #SHORTEN# 16rff, #SHORTEN# 16rff),  # PROC init = # (REF IMAGE self)REF IMAGE:    BEGIN      (fill OF class image)(self, black OF class image);      self    END,   # PROC fill = # (REF IMAGE self, PIXEL color)VOID:      FOR x FROM 1 LWB self TO 1 UPB self DO        FOR y FROM 2 LWB self TO 2 UPB self DO          self[x,y] := color        OD      OD,  # PROC print = # (REF IMAGE self)VOID:      printf((\$n(UPB self)(3(16r2d))l\$, self)),# virtual: #  # REF PROC line = # LOC PROC (REF IMAGE, POINT, POINT, PIXEL)VOID,  # REF PROC circle = # LOC PROC (REF IMAGE, POINT, INT, PIXEL)VOID,  # REF PROC cubic bezier = # LOC PROC (REF IMAGE, POINT, POINT, POINT, POINT, PIXEL, UNION(INT, VOID))VOID); OP CLASSOF = (IMAGE image)CLASSIMAGE: class image;OP INIT = (REF IMAGE image)REF IMAGE: (init OF (CLASSOF image))(image); SKIP`
File: test/Bitmap.a68
`#!/usr/bin/a68g --script ## -*- coding: utf-8 -*- # ### The test program ###PR READ "prelude/Bitmap.a68" PR; test:(   REF IMAGE x := INIT LOC[1:16, 1:16]PIXEL;   (fill OF class image) (x, white OF class image);   (print OF class image) (x))`
Output:
(A 16x16 white block)
```ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
```

## ARM Assembly

The Game Boy Advance's video memory is located at address 0x06000000, and is 240 pixels by 160 pixels, with 16 bits defining the color of each pixel. This is a linear array of memory; storing 0xFFFF at 0x06000000 for example will immediately make the top-left pixel of the screen turn white. The following routines are intended for the bitmap screen modes, and have only been tested in screen mode 3. There is no need to allocate this video memory as it is always available thanks to the hardware.

` Bitmap_FloodFill:	;input:	;r0 = color to fill screen with (15-bit color)	STMFD sp!,{r0-r12,lr} 			MOV R2,#160			MOV R4,#0x06000000outerloop_floodfill:			MOV R1,#240               ;restore inner loop counterinnerloop_floodfill:			strH r0,[r4] 			add r4,r4,#2              ;next pixel			subs r1,r1,#1             ;decrement loop counter			bne innerloop_floodfill			subs r2,r2,#1			bne outerloop_floodfill 	LDMFD sp!,{r0-r12,pc} Bitmap_Locate:        ;given x and y coordinates, offsets vram addr to that pixel on screen.	;input: 	;r0 = x	;r1 = y	;output: r2 = vram area	STMFD sp!,{r4-r12,lr}		mov r2,#0x06000000	;vram base  		mov r4,#240*2          ;240 pixels across, 2 bytes per pixel		mul r1,r4,r1		add r2,r2,r1          ;add y*480		add r2,r2,r0,lsl #1   ;add x*2	LDMFD sp!,{r4-r12,pc} Bitmap_StorePixel:	;input: r3 = color	;r0 = x	;r1 = y	bl Bitmap_Locate	strH r3,[r2]                 ;store the pixel color in video memory	bx lr Bitmap_GetPixel:        ;retrieves the color of the pixel at [r2] and stores its color value in r3.	;r0 = x	;r1 = y	;output in r3	bl Bitmap_Locate	ldrH r3,[r2]	bx lr`

## AutoHotkey

Works with: AutoHotkey_L
`test: blue := color(0,0,255)  ; rgbcyan := color(0,255,255) blue_square := Bitmap(10, 10, blue)cyanppm := Bitmap(10, 10, cyan)x := blue_square[4,4] ; get pixel(4,4)msgbox % "blue: 4,4,R,G,B, RGB: " x.R ", " x.G ", " x.B ", " x.rgb()blue_square[4,4] := cyan ; set pixel(4,4)x := blue_square[4,4] ; get pixel(4,4)blue_square.write("blue.ppm")return Bitmap(width = 1, height = 1, background = 0){global blackblack := color(0,0,0)if !backgroundbackground := black     static BitmapType    if !BitmapType        BitmapType        := Object("fill", "Bitmap_Fill"	         ,"write", "Bitmap_write_ppm3") 	img := Object("width", width                ,"height", height                , "base"    , BitmapType) 	img._SetCapacity(height) ; an array of rows  img.fill(background)Return img}  Bitmap_Fill(bitmap, color){r := color.rg := color.gb := color.b  loop % bitmap.height  {    height := A_Index    loop % bitmap.width    {      width := A_Index      bitmap[height, width] := color(r, g, b)    }  } return bitmap} Bitmap_write_ppm3(bitmap, filename){file := FileOpen(filename, 0x11) ; utf-8, writefile.seek(0,0)file.write("P3`n" . bitmap.width . " " . bitmap.height . "`n". "255`n")  loop % bitmap.height  {    height := A_Index    loop % bitmap.width    {      width := A_Index      color := bitmap[height, width]       file.Write(color.R . " ")      file.Write(color.G . " ")      file.Write(color.B . " ")    }    file.write("`n")  }  file.close() return 0} Color(r, g, b){    static ColorType    if !ColorType        ColorType        := Object("rgb"   , "Color_rgb")     return Object("r" , r, "g", g, "b", b                , "base"    , ColorType)  ; return Object("r" , r, "g", g, "b", b, "rgb", "Color_rgb")} Color_rgb(clr){return clr.R << 16 | clr.G << 8 | clr.B}`

## Axe

All of the functions specified in the task are built in to Axe. Note that bitmaps are always 96x64 black and white. Thus, since each pixel takes 1 bit, a complete bitmap is 768 bytes.

Two bitmaps can be masked together to create 3- and 4-color grayscale.

`Buff(768)→Pic1Fill(Pic1,768,255)Pxl-Off(45,30,Pic1) .Display the bitmap to demonstrateCopy(Pic1)DispGraphPause 4500 Disp pxl-Test(50,50,Pic1)▶Dec,i`

## BASIC256

`graphsize 30,30call fill(rgb(255,0,0))call setpixel(10,10,rgb(0,255,255))print "pixel 10,10 is " + pixel(10,10)print "pixel 20,20 is " + pixel(20,10) imgsave "BASIC256_bitmap.png"end subroutine fill(c)color crect 0,0,graphwidth, graphheightend subroutine subroutine setpixel(x,y,c)color cplot x,yend subroutine`
Output:
```pixel 10,10 is 4278255615
pixel 20,20 is 4294901760```

## BBC BASIC

BBC BASIC expects a bitmap always to be associated with a window; for simplicity this code uses the main output window.

`      Width% = 200      Height% = 200       REM Set window size:      VDU 23,22,Width%;Height%;8,16,16,128       REM Fill with an RGB colour:      PROCfill(100,150,200)       REM Set a pixel:      PROCsetpixel(100,100,255,255,0)       REM Get a pixel:      rgb% = FNgetpixel(100,100)      PRINT RIGHT\$("00000" + STR\$~rgb%, 6)      END       DEF PROCfill(r%,g%,b%)      COLOUR 1,r%,g%,b%      GCOL 1+128      CLG      ENDPROC       DEF PROCsetpixel(x%,y%,r%,g%,b%)      COLOUR 1,r%,g%,b%      GCOL 1      LINE x%*2,y%*2,x%*2,y%*2      ENDPROC       DEF FNgetpixel(x%,y%)      LOCAL col%      col% = TINT(x%*2,y%*2)      SWAP ?^col%,?(^col%+2)      = col%`

## C

Working excerpt from imglib.h usable as "interface" (some includes are needed for other functions of the same category). This code uses functions from category Raster graphics operations. One must create files imglib.h and imglib.c using code from these pages. Start from bitmap page

`#ifndef _IMGLIB_0#define _IMGLIB_0 #include <stdio.h>#include <stdlib.h>#include <sys/types.h>#include <string.h>#include <math.h>#include <sys/queue.h> typedef unsigned char color_component;typedef color_component pixel[3];typedef struct {    unsigned int width;    unsigned int height;    pixel * buf;} image_t;typedef image_t * image; image alloc_img(unsigned int width, unsigned int height);void free_img(image);void fill_img(image img,        color_component r,        color_component g,        color_component b );void put_pixel_unsafe(       	image img,        unsigned int x,        unsigned int y,        color_component r,        color_component g,        color_component b );void put_pixel_clip(       	image img,        unsigned int x,        unsigned int y,        color_component r,        color_component g,        color_component b );#define GET_PIXEL(IMG, X, Y) (IMG->buf[ ((Y) * IMG->width + (X)) ])#endif`
`image alloc_img(unsigned int width, unsigned int height){    image img;    img = malloc(sizeof(image_t));    img->buf = malloc(width * height * sizeof(pixel));    img->width = width;    img->height = height;    return img;} void free_img(image img){    free(img->buf);    free(img);} void fill_img(        image img,        color_component r,        color_component g,        color_component b ){    unsigned int i, n;    n = img->width * img->height;    for (i=0; i < n; ++i)    {        img->buf[i][0] = r;        img->buf[i][1] = g;        img->buf[i][2] = b;    }} void put_pixel_unsafe(       	image img,        unsigned int x,        unsigned int y,        color_component r,        color_component g,        color_component b ){    unsigned int ofs;    ofs = (y * img->width) + x;    img->buf[ofs][0] = r;    img->buf[ofs][1] = g;    img->buf[ofs][2] = b;} void put_pixel_clip(       	image img,        unsigned int x,        unsigned int y,        color_component r,        color_component g,        color_component b ){    if (x < img->width && y < img->height)      put_pixel_unsafe(img, x, y, r, g, b);}`

## C#

This implementation uses a multidemensional array to store the Color structure (which stores the RGB values). No exception catching for out-of-bounds errors if they occur, but provides Height and Width properties so a program using it can avoid them.

`public class Bitmap{    public struct Color    {        public byte Red { get; set; }        public byte Blue { get; set; }        public byte Green { get; set; }    }    Color[,] _imagemap;    public int Width { get { return _imagemap.GetLength(0); } }    public int Height { get { return _imagemap.GetLength(1); } }    public Bitmap(int width, int height)    {        _imagemap = new Color[width, height];    }    public void Fill(Color color)    {        for (int y = 0; y < Height; y++)            for (int x = 0; x < Width; x++)            {                _imagemap[x, y] = color;            }    }    public Color GetPixel(int x, int y)    {        return _imagemap[x, y];    }    public void SetPixel(int x, int y, Color color)    {        _imagemap[x, y] = color;    }}`

## C++

Works with: C++98
Library: boost
`#include <iostream>#include <boost/gil/gil_all.hpp>int main(){    using namespace boost::gil;    // create 30x40 image    rgb8_image_t img(30, 40);     // fill with red    rgb8_pixel_t red(255, 0, 0);    fill_pixels(view(img), red);     // set pixel at 10x20 to blue    rgb8_pixel_t blue(0, 0, 255);    view(img)(10, 20) = blue;     // read the value of pixel at 11x20    rgb8_pixel_t px = const_view(img)(11, 20);    std::cout << "the pixel at 11, 20 is " << (unsigned)px[0] << ':' << (unsigned)px[1] << ':' << (unsigned)px[2]  << '\n';}`

## Clojure

`(import '[java.awt Color Graphics Image]	'[java.awt.image BufferedImage]) (defn blank-bitmap [width height]  (BufferedImage. width height BufferedImage/TYPE_3BYTE_BGR)) (defn fill [image color]  (doto (.getGraphics image)    (.setColor color)    (.fillRect 0 0 (.getWidth image) (.getHeight image)))) (defn set-pixel [image x y color]  (.setRGB image x y (.getRGB color))) (defn get-pixel [image x y]  (Color. (.getRGB image x y)))`

## Common Lisp

`(defpackage #:rgb-pixel-buffer  (:use #:common-lisp)  (:export #:rgb-pixel-component #:rgb-pixel #:rgb-pixel-buffer           #:+red+ #:+green+ #:+blue+ #:+black+ #:+white+           #:make-rgb-pixel #:make-rgb-pixel-buffer #:rgb-pixel-buffer-width           #:rgb-pixel-buffer-height #:rgb-pixel-red #:rgb-pixel-green           #:rgb-pixel-blue #:fill-rgb-pixel-buffer))`
`(in-package #:rgb-pixel-buffer) (deftype rgb-pixel-component ()  '(unsigned-byte 8)) (deftype rgb-pixel ()  '(unsigned-byte 24)) (deftype rgb-pixel-buffer (&optional (width '*) (height '*))  `(array rgb-pixel (,width ,height))) (defconstant +black+ 0)(defconstant +white+ #xFFFFFF)(defconstant +red+ #xFF0000)(defconstant +green+ #x00FF00)(defconstant +blue+ #x0000FF) (defun make-rgb-pixel (r g b)  (declare (type rgb-pixel-component r g b))  (logior (ash r 16) (ash g 8) b)) (defun rgb-pixel-red (rgb)  (declare (type rgb-pixel rgb))  (logand (ash rgb -16) #xFF)) (defun rgb-pixel-green (rgb)  (declare (type rgb-pixel rgb))  (logand (ash rgb -8) #xFF)) (defun rgb-pixel-blue (rgb)  (declare (type rgb-pixel rgb))  (logand rgb #xFF)) (defun make-rgb-pixel-buffer (width height &optional (initial-element +black+))  (declare (type (integer 1) width height))  (declare (type rgb-pixel initial-element))  (make-array (list width height)     :element-type 'rgb-pixel     :initial-element initial-element)) (defun rgb-pixel-buffer-width (buffer)  (first (array-dimensions buffer))) (defun rgb-pixel-buffer-height (buffer)  (second (array-dimensions buffer))) (defun rgb-pixel (buffer x y)  (declare (type rgb-pixel-buffer buffer))  (declare (type (integer 0) x y))  (aref buffer x y)) (defun (setf rgb-pixel) (value buffer x y)  (declare (type rgb-pixel-buffer buffer))  (declare (type rgb-pixel value))  (declare (type (integer 0) x y))  (setf (aref buffer x y) value)) (defun fill-rgb-pixel-buffer (buffer pixel)  (declare (type rgb-pixel-buffer buffer))  (declare (type rgb-pixel pixel))  (let* ((dimensions (array-dimensions buffer))	 (width (first dimensions))	 (height (second dimensions)))    (loop        :for y :of-type fixnum :upfrom 0 :below height       :do (loop 	      :for x :of-type fixnum :upfrom 0 :below width	      :do (setf (rgb-pixel buffer x y) pixel)))    buffer))`

Example:

`(defvar *buffer* (make-rgb-pixel-buffer 10 10))(fill-rgb-pixel-buffer *buffer* +white+)(setf (rgb-pixel *buffer* 0 0) +red+)(setf (rgb-pixel *buffer* 0 9) +red+)(setf (rgb-pixel *buffer* 9 0) +red+)(setf (rgb-pixel *buffer* 9 9) +red+)`

## Crystal

` class RGBColor  getter red, green, blue   def initialize(@red = 0_u8, @green = 0_u8, @blue = 0_u8)  end   RED   = new(red: 255_u8)  GREEN = new(green: 255_u8)  BLUE  = new(blue: 255_u8)  BLACK = new  WHITE = new(255_u8, 255_u8, 255_u8)end class Pixmap  getter width, height  @data : Array(Array(RGBColor))   def initialize(@width : Int32, @height : Int32)    @data = Array.new(@width) { Array.new(@height, RGBColor::WHITE) }  end   def fill(color)    @data.each &.fill(color)  end   def [](x, y)    @data[x][y]  end   def []=(x, y, color)    @data[x][y] = color  endend bmap = Pixmap.new(5, 5)pp bmap `

## D

This code is a little complex because many Tasks use this module for various purposes.

`module bitmap; import std.stdio, std.array, std.exception, std.string, std.conv,       std.algorithm, std.ascii; final class Image(T) {    static if (is(typeof({ auto x = T.black; })))        const static T black = T.black;    else        const static T black = T.init;    static if (is(typeof({ auto x = T.white; })))        const static T white = T.white;     T[] image;    private size_t nx_, ny_;     this(in int nxx=0, in int nyy=0, in bool inizialize=true)    pure nothrow {        allocate(nxx, nyy, inizialize);    }     void allocate(in int nxx=0, in int nyy=0, in bool inizialize=true)    pure nothrow @safe in {        assert(nxx >= 0 && nyy >= 0);    } body {        this.nx_ = nxx;        this.ny_ = nyy;        if (nxx * nyy > 0) {            if (inizialize)                image.length = nxx * nyy;            else // Optimization.                image = minimallyInitializedArray!(typeof(image))                                                  (nxx * nyy);        }    }     @property Image dup() const pure nothrow @safe {        auto result = new Image();        result.image = this.image.dup;        result.nx_ = this.nx;        result.ny_ = this.ny;        return result;    }     static Image fromData(T[] data, in size_t nxx=0, in size_t nyy=0)    pure nothrow @safe in {        assert(nxx >= 0 && nyy >= 0 && data.length == nxx * nyy);    } body {        auto result = new Image();        result.image = data;        result.nx_ = nxx;        result.ny_ = nyy;        return result;    }     @property size_t nx() const pure nothrow @safe @nogc { return nx_; }    @property size_t ny() const pure nothrow @safe @nogc { return ny_; }     ref T opIndex(in size_t x, in size_t y) pure nothrow @safe @nogc    in {        assert(x < nx_ && y < ny_);        //assert(x < nx_, format("opIndex, x=%d, nx=%d", x, nx));        //assert(y < ny_, format("opIndex, y=%d, ny=%d", y, ny));    } body {        return image[x + y * nx_];    }     T opIndex(in size_t x, in size_t y) const pure nothrow @safe @nogc    in {        assert(x < nx_ && y < ny_);        //assert(x < nx_, format("opIndex, x=%d, nx=%d", x, nx));        //assert(y < ny_, format("opIndex, y=%d, ny=%d", y, ny));    } body {        return image[x + y * nx_];    }     T opIndexAssign(in T color, in size_t x, in size_t y)    pure nothrow @safe @nogc    in {        assert(x < nx_ && y < ny_);        //assert(x < nx_, format("opIndex, x=%d, nx=%d", x, nx));        //assert(y < ny_, format("opIndex, y=%d, ny=%d", y, ny));    } body {        return image[x + y * nx_] = color;    }     void opIndexUnary(string op)(in size_t x, in size_t y)    pure nothrow @safe @nogc    if (op == "++" || op == "--") in {        assert(x < nx_ && y < ny_);    } body {        mixin("image[x + y * nx_] " ~ op ~ ";");    }     void clear(in T color=this.black) pure nothrow @safe @nogc {        image[] = color;    }     /// Convert a 2D array of chars to a binary Image.    static Image fromText(in string txt,                          in char one='#', in char zero='.') pure {        auto M = txt                 .strip                 .split                 .map!(row => row                              .filter!(c => c == one || c == zero)                              .map!(c => T(c == one))                              .array)                 .array;        assert(M.join.length > 0); // Not empty.        foreach (row; M)            assert(row.length == M[0].length); // Rectangular        return Image.fromData(M.join, M[0].length, M.length);    }     /// The axis origin is at the top left.    void textualShow(in char bl='#', in char wh='.') const nothrow {        size_t i = 0;        foreach (immutable y; 0 .. ny_) {            foreach (immutable x; 0 .. nx_)                putchar(image[i++] == black ? bl : wh);            putchar('\n');        }    }}  struct RGB {    ubyte r, g, b;    static immutable black = typeof(this)();    static immutable white = typeof(this)(255, 255, 255);}  Image!RGB loadPPM6(ref Image!RGB img, in string fileName) {    if (img is null)        img = new Image!RGB;    auto f = File(fileName, "rb");    enforce(f.readln.strip == "P6");    string line;    do {        line = f.readln();    } while (line.length && line[0] == '#'); // Skip comments.    const size = line.split;    enforce(size.length == 2);    img.allocate(size[0].to!uint, size[1].to!uint);    enforce(f.readln().strip() == "255");    auto l = new ubyte[img.nx * 3];    size_t i = 0;    foreach (immutable y; 0 .. img.ny) {        f.rawRead!ubyte(l);        foreach (immutable x; 0 .. img.nx)            img.image[i++] = RGB(l[x * 3], l[x * 3 + 1], l[x * 3 + 2]);    }    return img;}  void savePPM6(in Image!RGB img, in string fileName)in {    assert(img !is null);    assert(img.nx > 0 && img.nx > 0);} body {    auto f = File(fileName, "wb");    f.writefln("P6\n%d %d\n255", img.nx, img.ny);    size_t i = 0;    foreach (immutable y; 0 .. img.ny)        foreach (immutable x; 0 .. img.nx) {            immutable p = img.image[i++];            f.write(cast(char)p.r, cast(char)p.g, cast(char)p.b);        }} version (bitmap_main) {    void main() {        auto img = new Image!RGB(30, 10);        img[4, 5] = RGB.white;        img.textualShow;    }}`

Compiling it with `version=bitmap_main` prints:

Output:
```##############################
##############################
##############################
##############################
##############################
####.#########################
##############################
##############################
##############################
##############################```

## Delphi

` program BitmapTest; {\$APPTYPE CONSOLE} type  TColor = record  private    function GetColor: Cardinal;    procedure SetColor(const Value: Cardinal);  public    Red, Green, Blue, Alpha: Byte;    property Color: Cardinal read GetColor write SetColor;  end;   TBitmap = class  private    FPixels: array of array of TColor;    FHeight: Integer;    FWidth: Integer;    function GetPixel(X, Y: integer): TColor;  public    procedure Fill(aColor: TColor); overload;    procedure Fill(aColor: Cardinal); overload;    procedure SetSize(w, h: Integer);    constructor Create(); overload;    constructor Create(w, h: Integer); overload;    property Height: Integer read FHeight;    property Width: Integer read FWidth;    property Pixel[X, Y: integer]: TColor read GetPixel;  end; { TColor } function TColor.GetColor: Cardinal;begin  Result := (alpha shl 24) + (red shl 16) + (green shl 8) + blue;end; procedure TColor.SetColor(const Value: Cardinal);begin  blue := (Value and \$FF);  green := ((Value shr 8) and \$FF);  red := ((Value shr 16) and \$FF);  alpha := ((Value shr 24) and \$FF);end; { TBitmap } constructor TBitmap.Create;begin  inherited;  FHeight := 0;  FWidth := 0;end; constructor TBitmap.Create(w, h: Integer);begin  Create;  SetSize(w, h);end; procedure TBitmap.Fill(aColor: Cardinal);var  x, y: Integer;begin  if (Width > 0) and (Height > 0) then    for x := 0 to width - 1 do      for y := 0 to height - 1 do        FPixels[x, y].Color := aColor;end; procedure TBitmap.Fill(aColor: TColor);begin  Fill(aColor.Color);end; function TBitmap.GetPixel(X, Y: integer): TColor;begin  Result := FPixels[X, Y];end; procedure TBitmap.SetSize(w, h: Integer);var  i: Integer;begin  if (h = 0) or (w = 0) then  begin    h := 0;    w := 0;  end;   FHeight := h;  FWidth := w;  SetLength(FPixels, w);  if w > 0 then    for i := 0 to w - 1 do      SetLength(FPixels[i], h);end; var  bmp: TBitmap;  x, y: Integer; begin  bmp := TBitmap.Create(200, 200);  bmp.Fill(\$00FF0000);  for y := 0 to bmp.Height - 1 do    for x := 0 to bmp.Width - 1 do    begin      if x mod 2 = 1 then        bmp.Pixel[x, y].Color := \$0000FF;    end;  bmp.Free;end.`

## E

This example includes the write ppm file code, because it is most naturally written as a method on the image object.

`def makeFlexList := <elib:tables.makeFlexList>def format := <import:java.lang.makeString>.format def CHANNELS := 3def UByte := 0..255 def makeColor {  to fromFloat(r, g, b) {    return makeColor.fromByte((r * 255).round(),                              (g * 255).round(),                              (b * 255).round())  }  to fromByte(r :UByte, g :UByte, b :UByte) {    def color {      to __printOn(out) {        out.print(format("%02x%02x%02x", [color.rb(), color.gb(), color.bb()]))      }      to rf() { return r / 255 }      to gf() { return g / 255 }      to bf() { return b / 255 }      to rb() { return r }      to gb() { return g }      to bb() { return b }    }    return color  }} /** Convert 0..255 into 0..127 -128..-1 */def sign(v) {  return v %% 256 - 2*(v & 128)} def makeImage(width, height) {  # NOTE: The primary E implementation is in Java and Java's fixed-size integers only   # come in signed varieties. Therefore, there is a little bit of extra arithmetic.  #  # In an ideal E implementation we would specify the type 0..255, but this is not  # currently possible everywhere, or efficient.   def storage := makeFlexList.fromType(<type:java.lang.Byte>, width * height * CHANNELS)  storage.setSize(width * height * CHANNELS)   def X := 0..!width  def Y := 0..!height   def flexImage {    to __printOn(out) {      for y in Y {        out.print("[")        for x in X {          out.print(flexImage[x, y], " ")        }        out.println("]")      }    }    to width() { return width }    to height() { return height }    to fill(color) {      for x in X {        for y in Y {          flexImage[x, y] := color        }      }    }    to get(x :X, y :Y) {      def base := (y * width + x) * CHANNELS      return makeColor.fromByte(storage[base + 0] %% 256,                                storage[base + 1] %% 256,                                storage[base + 2] %% 256)    }    /** Provided to make [[Flood fill]] slightly less insanely slow. */    to test(x :X, y :Y, c) {      def base := (y * width + x) * CHANNELS      return storage[base + 0] <=> sign(c.rb()) &&             storage[base + 1] <=> sign(c.gb()) &&             storage[base + 2] <=> sign(c.bb())    }    to put(x :X, y :Y, c) {       def base := (y * width + x) * CHANNELS      storage[base + 0] := sign(c.rb())      storage[base + 1] := sign(c.gb())      storage[base + 2] := sign(c.bb())    }    to writePPM(outputStream) {      outputStream.write(`P6\$\n\$width \$height\$\n255\$\n`.getBytes("US-ASCII"))      outputStream.write(storage.getArray())    }    /** Used for [[Read ppm file]] */    to replace(list :List) {      require(list.size() == width * height * CHANNELS)      storage(0) := list    }  }   return flexImage}`

Examples/tests:

`? def i := makeImage(3, 3)# value: [000000 000000 000000 ]#        [000000 000000 000000 ]#        [000000 000000 000000 ]#         ? i.fill(makeColor.fromFloat(1, 0, 0))? i# value: [ff0000 ff0000 ff0000 ]#        [ff0000 ff0000 ff0000 ]#        [ff0000 ff0000 ff0000 ]#         ? i[1, 1] := makeColor.fromFloat(0.5, 0.5, 0.5)# value: 808080 ? i# value: [ff0000 ff0000 ff0000 ]#        [ff0000 808080 ff0000 ]#        [ff0000 ff0000 ff0000 ]#         ? i[0, 1]# value: ff0000 ? i[1, 1]# value: 808080 ? i.writePPM(<import:java.io.makeFileOutputStream>(<file:~/Desktop/Rosetta.ppm>))`

## EchoLisp

` (lib 'plot)(define width 600)(define height 400) (plot-size width height) ;; set image size (define (blue x y) (rgb 0.0 0.0 1.0)) ;; a constant function(plot-rgb blue 1 1) ;; blue everywhere (lib 'types) ;; uint32 and uint8 vector types ;; bit-map pixel access(define bitmap (pixels->uint32-vector)) ;; screen to vector of int32    → 240000 (define (pix-at x y) (vector-ref bitmap (+ x (* y width))))(rgb->list (pix-at 100 200)) → (0 0 255 255)  ;; rgb blue ;; writing to bitmap(define (set-color-xy x y col) (vector-set! bitmap (+ x (* y width)) col)) (for* ((x 100)(y 200)) (set-color-xy x y (rgb 1 1 0))) ;; to bitmap(vector->pixels bitmap) ;; bitmap to screen  ;; bit-map color components (r g b a) = index (0 1 2 3) access(define bitmap (pixels->uint8-clamped-vector)) ;; screen to vector of uint8(vector-length bitmap)    → 960000(define (blue-at-xy x y) (vector-ref bitmap (+ x 3 (* y width)))) ;; 3 = blue component(blue-at-xy 100 200)    → 255 `

## Elixir

Translation of the erlang version of the code.

` defmodule RosBitmap do  defrecord Bitmap, pixels: nil, shape: {0, 0}   defp new(width, height, {:rgb, r, g, b}) do    Bitmap[      pixels: :array.new(width * height,        {:default, <<r::size(8), g::size(8), b::size(8)>>}),      shape: {width, height}]  end   def new(width, height), do: new(width, height, {:rgb, 0, 0, 0})   def fill(Bitmap[shape: {width, height}], {:rgb, _r, _g, _b}=color) do    new(width, height, color)  end   def set_pixel(Bitmap[pixels: pixels, shape: {width, _height}]=bitmap,      {:at, x, y}, {:rgb, r, g, b}) do    index = x + y * width    bitmap.pixels(:array.set(index, <<r::size(8), g::size(8), b::size(8)>>, pixels))  end   def get_pixel(Bitmap[pixels: pixels, shape: {width, _height}], {:at, x, y}) do    index = x + y * width    <<r::size(8), g::size(8), b::size(8)>> = :array.get(index, pixels)    {:rgb, r, g, b}  endend `

## Erlang

Stores pixels as a 1d array and colors as binaries.

` -module(ros_bitmap). -export([new/2, fill/2, set_pixel/3, get_pixel/2]). -record(bitmap, {    pixels = nil,    shape = {0, 0}  }). new(Width, Height) ->  #bitmap{pixels=array:new(Width * Height, {default, <<0:8, 0:8, 0:8>>}), shape={Width, Height}}. fill(#bitmap{shape={Width, Height}}, {rgb, R, G, B}) ->  #bitmap{    pixels=array:new(Width * Height, {default, <<R:8, G:8, B:8>>}),    shape={Width, Height}}. set_pixel(#bitmap{pixels=Pixels, shape={Width, _Height}}=Bitmap, {at, X, Y}, {rgb, R, G, B}) ->  Index = X + Y * Width,  Bitmap#bitmap{pixels=array:set(Index, <<R:8, G:8, B:8>>, Pixels)}. get_pixel(#bitmap{pixels=Pixels, shape={Width, _Height}}, {at, X, Y}) ->  Index = X + Y * Width,  <<R:8, G:8, B:8>> = array:get(Index, Pixels),  {rgb, R, G, B}. `

## Euphoria

`-- Some color constants:constant    black = #000000,    white = #FFFFFF,    red =   #FF0000,    green = #00FF00,    blue =  #0000FF -- Create new image filled with some colorfunction new_image(integer width, integer height, atom fill_color)    return repeat(repeat(fill_color,height),width)end function -- Usage example:sequence imageimage = new_image(800,600,black) -- Set pixel color:image[400][300] = red -- Get pixel coloratom colorcolor = image[400][300] -- Now color is #FF0000`

?color -- Should print out 16711680

## F#

FSharp can accomplish this task in several ways. This version is purely functional. The bitmap data structure does not mutate. Set pixel, for example, simply transforms the input bitmap into a new bitmap with that pixel set to the input color. If you have Framework 4.5, you can use ImmutableArray to force this immutability.

Solution:

` //pure functional version ... changing a pixel color provides a new Bitmaptype Color = {red: byte; green: byte; blue: byte}type Point = {x:uint32; y:uint32}type Bitmap = {color: Color array; maxX: uint32; maxY: uint32}  let colorBlack = {red = (byte) 0; green = (byte) 0; blue = (byte) 0}let emptyBitmap = {color = Array.empty; maxX = (uint32) 0; maxY = (uint32) 0}let bitmap (width: uint32) (height: uint32) =     match width, height with    | 0u,0u | 0u,_ | _, 0u -> emptyBitmap    | _,_ -> {color = Array.create ((int) (width * height)) colorBlack;             maxX = width;             maxY = height}let getPixel point bitmap =    match bitmap.color with    | c when c |> Array.isEmpty -> None     | c when (uint32) c.Length <= (point.y * bitmap.maxY + point.x) -> None    | c -> Some c.[(int) (point.y * bitmap.maxY + point.x)]let setPixel point color bitmap =    {bitmap with color = bitmap.color |> Array.mapi (function                 | i when i = (int) (point.y * bitmap.maxY + point.x) ->                     (fun _ -> color)                 | _ -> id)}    let fill color bitmap = {bitmap with color = bitmap.color |> Array.map (fun _ ->color)} `

Tests:

` //setups//==check pixel for color functionlet check bitmap color (x,y) =     match (getPixel {x=x;y=y} bitmap) with     | Some(v) -> v = color     | _ -> falselet allPixels i j = [for x in [0u..(i-1u)] do for y in [0u..(j-1u)] -> (x,y)] //create new empty bitmaplet myBitmap = bitmap 0u 0uprintfn "Is empty: %b" (myBitmap = emptyBitmap)let myBitmap2 = bitmap 1u 0uprintfn "Is empty: %b" (myBitmap2 = emptyBitmap)let myBitmap3 = bitmap 0u 1uprintfn "Is empty: %b" (myBitmap3 = emptyBitmap)    //create normal bitmaplet myBitmap4 = bitmap 14u 14uprintfn "Is not empty: %b" (not (myBitmap4 = emptyBitmap))    //just check one colorprintfn "Is 1,1 black: %b" (check myBitmap4 colorBlack (1u,1u))//check out of range colorprintfn "Is 100,100 nothing: %b" (not(check myBitmap4 colorBlack (100u,100u)))//make sure all pixels are blackprintfn "Is all black: %b" ((allPixels 14u 14u) |> List.forall (check myBitmap4 colorBlack)) //fill bitmap colorlet colorWhite = {red = (byte) 255; green = (byte) 255; blue = (byte) 255}let myBitmap5 = myBitmap4 |> fill colorWhiteprintfn "Is all white: %b" ((allPixels 14u 14u) |> List.forall (check myBitmap5 colorWhite)) //change just one pixellet myBitmap6 = myBitmap5 |> setPixel {x=5u;y=10u} colorBlackprintfn "Is 5,10 black: %b" (check myBitmap4 colorBlack (5u,10u)) `
Output:
Is empty: true

Is empty: true

Is empty: true

Is not empty: true

Is 1,1 black: true

Is 100,100 nothing: true

Is all black: true

Is all white: true

Is 5,10 black: true Usage:

` bitmap 14u 14u|> fill {red = (byte) 200; green = (byte) 0; blue = (byte) 10}|> setPixel {x=5u;y=10u} {red = (byte) 0; green = (byte) 0; blue = (byte) 0}|> getPixel {x=5u;y=10u}|> printfn "%A" `
Output:

Some {red = 0uy;

```     green = 0uy;
blue = 0uy;}
```

## Factor

The image is a matrix of triples {R,G,B}. The various utilities could be defined in another file, most of them are not used right now, but we need them for drawing so I put every thing here..

`USING: arrays fry kernel math.matrices sequences ;IN: rosettacode.raster.storage ! Various utilities: meach ( matrix quot -- ) [ each ] curry each ; inline: meach-index ( matrix quot -- )     [ swap 2array ] prepose    [ curry each-index ] curry each-index ; inline: mmap ( matrix quot -- matrix' ) [ map ] curry map ; inline: mmap! ( matrix quot -- matrix' ) [ map! ] curry map! ; inline: mmap-index ( matrix quot -- matrix' )     [ swap 2array ] prepose    [ curry map-index ] curry map-index ; inline : matrix-dim ( matrix -- i j ) [ length ] [ first length ] bi ;: set-Mi,j ( elt {i,j} matrix -- ) [ first2 swap ] dip nth set-nth ;: Mi,j ( {i,j} matrix -- elt ) [ first2 swap ] dip nth nth ; ! The storage functions: <raster-image> ( width height -- image )     zero-matrix [ drop { 0 0 0 } ] mmap ;: fill-image ( {R,G,B} image -- image )     swap '[ drop _ ] mmap! ;: set-pixel ( {R,G,B} {i,j} image -- ) set-Mi,j ; inline: get-pixel ( {i,j} image -- pixel ) Mi,j ; inline `

## FBSL

Volatility in FBSL is a feature uncommon to most other languages. It is the ability of its intrinsic functions as well as its user-defined functions, DynAsm and DynC blocks, and functions imported from 3rd-party DLL's to preserve their return values between function calls in FBSL Variants that have the same names as their respective functions but use neither the parentheses nor the arguments. These Variants belong to the global namespace and can be used throughout the entire script until another fully qualified function call to their respective functions is made, whereby they change their values accordingly. The feature minimizes the need for temporary variables and assignments.

This feature is a logical extension of VisualBasic way to formalize its function return value by assigning it to a Variant of the same name as that of the respective function. However, the VB Variant is only effective within the scope of its own function.

Using pure FBSL's built-in graphics functions:

`#DEFINE WM_LBUTTONDOWN 513#DEFINE WM_RBUTTONDOWN 516#DEFINE WM_CLOSE 16 FBSLSETFORMCOLOR(ME, RGB(0, 255, 255)) ' Cyan: set persistent background colorDRAWWIDTH(5) ' Adjust point sizeFBSL.GETDC(ME) ' Use volatile FBSL.GETDC below to avoid extra assignments RESIZE(ME, 0, 0, 300, 200)CENTER(ME)SHOW(ME) BEGIN EVENTS	SELECT CASE CBMSG		CASE WM_LBUTTONDOWN ' Set color at current coords as hex literal			PSET(FBSL.GETDC, LOWORD(CBLPARAM), HIWORD(CBLPARAM), &H0000FF) ' Red: Windows stores colors in BGR order		CASE WM_RBUTTONDOWN ' Get color at current coords as hex literal			FBSLSETTEXT(ME, "&H" & HEX(POINT(FBSL.GETDC, LOWORD(CBLPARAM), HIWORD(CBLPARAM))))		CASE WM_CLOSE ' Clean up			FBSL.RELEASEDC(ME, FBSL.GETDC)	END SELECTEND EVENTS`
Output:

## Forth

This creates bitmaps on the heap (they may be deallocated with "FREE"). 32-bit or greater cells are assumed, one pixel per cell. This automatically word-aligns rows, so a separate stride field is not required.

`hex0000ff constant red00ff00 constant greenff0000 constant bluedecimal 1 cells constant pixel: pixels cells ; : bdim ( bmp -- w h ) [email protected] ;: bheight ( bmp -- h ) @ ;: bwidth ( bmp -- w ) bdim drop ;: bdata ( bmp -- addr ) 2 cells + ; : bitmap ( w h -- bmp )  2dup * pixels bdata allocate throw  dup >r 2! r> ; : bfill ( pixel bmp -- )  dup bdata swap bdim * pixels  bounds do    dup i !  pixel +loop  drop ; : bxy ( x y bmp -- addr )  dup >r bwidth * + pixels r> bdata + ; : [email protected] ( x y bmp -- pixel ) bxy @ ;: b! ( pixel x y bmp -- ) bxy ! ; : bshow ( bmp -- )  hex  dup bdim  0 do cr    dup 0 do      over i j rot [email protected] if [char] * else bl then emit  \ 7 u.r    loop  loop  2drop decimal ; 4 3 bitmap value testred test bfilltest bshow cr`

## FreeBASIC

`Screenres 320, 240, 8Dim Shared As Integer w, hScreeninfo w, hConst As Ubyte cyan    = 3Const As Ubyte red     = 4 Sub rellenar(c As Integer)    Line (0,0) - (w/3, h/3), red, BFEnd Sub Sub establecePixel(x As Integer, y As Integer, c As Integer)    Pset (x,y), cyanEnd Sub rellenar(12)establecePixel(10,10, cyan)Locate 12Print "pixel 10,10 es " & Point(10,10)Print "pixel 20,20 es " & Point(20,10) Bsave "FreeBASIC_bitmap.bmp", 0Sleep`

## Go

### Standard library

Go's standard library include image, color, and drawing packages and the source for them is easy to read. There is also a Go Blog article on the image package The `image.NRGBA` type supports everything this task requires (the 'A' is for alpha channel, each are 8 bits, if 16 bits each of RGBA is desired there is also the `image.NRGBA64` type). The 'N' of NRGBA stands for Non-alpha-premultiplied, color values can trivially be converted to/from alpha-premultiplied RGBA values via a `color.Model`.

Here's how to use the standard packages to do what this task requires:

`package main import (	"bytes"	"fmt"	"image"	"image/color"	"image/draw"	"image/png") func main() {	// A rectangle from 0,0 to 300,240.	r := image.Rect(0, 0, 300, 240) 	// Create an image	im := image.NewNRGBA(r) 	// set some color variables for convience	var (		red  = color.RGBA{0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff}		blue = color.RGBA{0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff}	) 	// Fill with a uniform color	draw.Draw(im, r, &image.Uniform{red}, image.ZP, draw.Src) 	// Set individual pixels	im.Set(10, 20, blue)	im.Set(20, 30, color.Black)	im.Set(30, 40, color.RGBA{0x10, 0x20, 0x30, 0xff}) 	// Get the values of specific pixels as color.Color types.	// The color will be in the color.Model of the image (in this	// case color.NRGBA) but color models can convert their values	// to other models.	c1 := im.At(0, 0)	c2 := im.At(10, 20) 	// or directly as RGB components (scaled values)	redc, greenc, bluec, _ := c1.RGBA()	redc, greenc, bluec, _ = im.At(30, 40).RGBA() 	// Images can be read and writen in various formats	var buf bytes.Buffer	err := png.Encode(&buf, im)	if err != nil {		fmt.Println(err)	} 	fmt.Println("Image size:", im.Bounds().Dx(), "×", im.Bounds().Dy())	fmt.Println(buf.Len(), "bytes when encoded as PNG.")	fmt.Printf("Pixel at %7v is %v\n", image.Pt(0, 0), c1)	fmt.Printf("Pixel at %7v is %#v\n", image.Pt(10, 20), c2) // %#v shows type details	fmt.Printf("Pixel at %7v has R=%d, G=%d, B=%d\n",		image.Pt(30, 40), redc, greenc, bluec)}`
Output:
```Image size: 300 × 240
786 bytes when encoded as PNG.
Pixel at   (0,0) is {255 0 0 255}
Pixel at (10,20) is color.NRGBA{R:0x0, G:0x0, B:0xff, A:0xff}
Pixel at (30,40) has R=4112, G=8224, B=12336
```

### DIY

Not a complete working program. Presented here are just types and functions requested by the task.

`// Raster package used with a number of RC tasks.//// For each task, documentation in package main source will list this// file and others that are necessary to build a raster package with// sufficient functionality for the task.  To build a working program,// build a raster package from the files listed, install the package,// and then compile and link the package main that completes the task.//// Alternatively, files in the raster package can be combined as desired// to build a package that meets the needs of multiple tasks.package raster // Rgb is a 24 bit color value represented with a 32 bit int// in the conventional way.  This is expected to be convenient// for the programmer in many cases.type Rgb int32 // Pixel has r, g, and b as separate fields.  This is used as// the in-memory representation of a bitmap.type Pixel struct {    R, G, B byte} // Pixel returns a new Pixel from a Rgb valuefunc (c Rgb) Pixel() Pixel {    return Pixel{R: byte(c >> 16), G: byte(c >> 8), B: byte(c)}} // Rgb returns a single Rgb value computed from rgb fields of a Pixel// of a Pixel.func (p Pixel) Rgb() Rgb {    return Rgb(p.R)<<16 | Rgb(p.G)<<8 | Rgb(p.B)} // Bitmap is the in-memory representation, or image storage type of a bitmap.// Zero value for type is a valid zero-size bitmap.// The only exported field is Comments.  Remaining fields have interdepencies// that are managed by package code and so should not be directly accessed// from outside the package.type Bitmap struct {    Comments   []string    rows, cols int    px         []Pixel   // all pixels as a single slice, row major order    pxRow      [][]Pixel // rows of pixels as slices of px} const creator = "# Creator: Rosetta Code http://rosettacode.org/" // New is a Bitmap "constructor."  Parameters x and y are extents.// That is, the new bitmap will have x columns and y rows.func NewBitmap(x, y int) (b *Bitmap) {    b = &Bitmap{        Comments: []string{creator},        rows:     y, // named fields here to prevent possible mix-ups.        cols:     x,        px:       make([]Pixel, x*y),        pxRow:    make([][]Pixel, y),    }    // Note rows of pixels are not allocated separately.    // Rather the whole bitmap is allocted in one chunk as px.    // This simplifies allocation and maintains locality.    x0, x1 := 0, x    for i := range b.pxRow {        b.pxRow[i] = b.px[x0:x1] // slice operation. does no allocation.        x0, x1 = x1, x1+x    }    return b} // Extent returns bitmap dimensions.func (b *Bitmap) Extent() (cols, rows int) {    return b.cols, b.rows} // Fill entire bitmap with solid color.func (b *Bitmap) Fill(p Pixel) {    for i := range b.px {        b.px[i] = p    }} func (b *Bitmap) FillRgb(c Rgb) {    b.Fill(c.Pixel())} // Set a single pixel color value.// Clips to bitmap boundaries.// Returns true if pixel was set, false if clipped.func (b *Bitmap) SetPx(x, y int, p Pixel) bool {    defer func() { recover() }()    b.pxRow[y][x] = p    return true} func (b *Bitmap) SetPxRgb(x, y int, c Rgb) bool {    return b.SetPx(x, y, c.Pixel())} // Note:  Clipping to bitmap boundaries is needed for program correctness// but is otherwise not required by the task.  It is implemented with the// combination of pxRow and the deferred recover.  SetPx, GetPx return the// clipping result as a way for higher level graphics functions to track// plotting and clipping status.  As this is not required by tasks though,// it is generally not implemented. // Get a single pixel color value.// Returns pixel and ok=true if coordinates are within bitmap boundaries.// Returns ok=false if coordinates are outside bitmap boundaries.func (b *Bitmap) GetPx(x, y int) (p Pixel, ok bool) {    defer func() { recover() }()    return b.pxRow[y][x], true} func (b *Bitmap) GetPxRgb(x, y int) (Rgb, bool) {    p, ok := b.GetPx(x, y)    if !ok {        return 0, false    }    return p.Rgb(), true}`

We implement the Image type as an STArray so that we can use it in an imperative fashion in the ST monad.

`module Bitmap(module Bitmap) where import Control.Monadimport Control.Monad.STimport Data.Array.ST newtype Pixel = Pixel (Int, Int) deriving Eq instance Ord Pixel where    compare (Pixel (x1, y1)) (Pixel (x2, y2)) =        case compare y1 y2 of            EQ -> compare x1 x2            v  -> v instance Ix Pixel where{- This instance differs from the one for (Int, Int) in thatthe ordering of indices is  (0,0), (1,0), (2,0), (0,1), (1,1), (2,1)instead of  (0,0), (0,1), (1,0), (1,1), (2,0), (2,1). -}    range (Pixel (xa, ya), Pixel (xz, yz)) =        [Pixel (x, y) | y <- [ya .. yz], x <- [xa .. xz]]    index (Pixel (xa, ya), Pixel (xz, _)) (Pixel (xi, yi)) =        (yi - ya)*(xz - xa + 1) + (xi - xa)    inRange (Pixel (xa, ya), Pixel (xz, yz)) (Pixel (xi, yi)) =        not \$ xi < xa || xi > xz || yi < ya || yi > yz    rangeSize (Pixel (xa, ya), Pixel (xz, yz)) =        (xz - xa + 1) * (yz - ya + 1) instance Show Pixel where    show (Pixel p) = show p class Ord c => Color c where    luminance :: c -> Int     -- The Int should be in the range [0 .. 255].    black, white :: c    toNetpbm :: [c] -> String    fromNetpbm :: [Int] -> [c]    netpbmMagicNumber, netpbmMaxval :: c -> String      {- The argument to these two functions is ignored; the      parameter is only for typechecking. -} newtype Color c => Image s c = Image (STArray s Pixel c) image :: Color c => Int -> Int -> c -> ST s (Image s c){- Creates a new image with the given width and height, filledwith the given color. -}image w h = liftM Image .    newArray (Pixel (0, 0), Pixel (w - 1, h - 1)) listImage :: Color c => Int -> Int -> [c] -> ST s (Image s c){- Creates a new image with the given width and height, witheach pixel set to the corresponding element of the given list. -}listImage w h = liftM Image .    newListArray (Pixel (0, 0), Pixel (w - 1, h - 1)) dimensions :: Color c => Image s c -> ST s (Int, Int)dimensions (Image i) = do    (_, Pixel (x, y)) <- getBounds i    return (x + 1, y + 1) getPix :: Color c => Image s c -> Pixel -> ST s cgetPix (Image i) = readArray i getPixels :: Color c => Image s c -> ST s [c]getPixels (Image i) = getElems i setPix :: Color c => Image s c -> Pixel -> c -> ST s ()setPix (Image i) = writeArray i fill :: Color c => Image s c -> c -> ST s ()fill (Image i) c = getBounds i >>= mapM_ f . range  where f p = writeArray i p c mapImage :: (Color c, Color c') =>    (c -> c') -> Image s c -> ST s (Image s c')mapImage f (Image i) = liftM Image \$ mapArray f i`

This module provides an instance of Color.

`module Bitmap.RGB(module Bitmap.RGB) where import Bitmapimport Control.Monad.ST newtype RGB = RGB (Int, Int, Int) deriving (Eq, Ord) instance Color RGB where    luminance (RGB (r, g, b)) = round x      where x = 0.2126*r' + 0.7152*g' + 0.0722*b'            (r', g', b') = (toEnum r, toEnum g, toEnum b)    black = RGB (0,   0,   0)    white = RGB (255, 255, 255)    toNetpbm = concatMap f      where f (RGB (r, g, b)) = [toEnum r, toEnum g, toEnum b]    fromNetpbm [] = []    fromNetpbm (r : g : b : rest) = RGB (r, g, b) : fromNetpbm rest    netpbmMagicNumber _ = "P6"    netpbmMaxval _ = "255" toRGBImage :: Color c => Image s c -> ST s (Image s RGB)toRGBImage = mapImage \$ f . luminance  where f x = RGB (x, x, x)`

## Icon and Unicon

The language has a built-in window data type with associated graphics primitives. A bitmap is just a window that isn't visible on-screen at the moment.

`procedure makebitmap(width,height)   return open("bitmap", "g", "canvas=hidden",             "size="||width||","||height)endprocedure fillimage(w,color)   Fg(w,color)   FillRectangle(w)endprocedure setpixel(w,x,y,color)   Fg(w,color)   DrawPixel(x,y)endprocedure getpixel(w,x,y)   return Pixel(w,x,y)end`

## J

A number of addon packages are available for J that work with common image formats (including PPM), but here we will show a basic bitmap storage type as per the task description.

The structure is a 3-dimensional array of numbers. The shape of the array is height by width by 3. Each 1-dimensional cell of size 3 contains R, G and B numbers, in that order. Indexing is zero based. (We could instead have encoded RGB in a single integer...)

No parameter validity checks are currently implemented.

In J, allocating an uninitialized image would not normally be separated from creating the colored image, so makeRGB allows the specification of color during allocation. As a monad, `makeRGB` creates a black image with the specified height and width. It can also take a left argument (dyadic form) specifying the color(s) of the image. `fillRGB` requires a left argument specifying the color(s), but takes a bitmap (RGB) structure as the right argument.

Solution:

`makeRGB=: 0&\$: : ((\$,)~ ,&3)fillRGB=: makeRGB }:@\$setPixels=: (1&{::@[)`(<"1@(0&{::@[))`]}getPixels=: <"1@[ { ]`

Examples:

`   myimg=: makeRGB 5 8               NB. create a bitmap with height 5 and width 8 (black)   myimg=: 255 makeRGB 5 8           NB. create a white bitmap with height 5 and width 8   myimg=: 127 makeRGB 5 8           NB. create a gray bitmap with height 5 and width 8   myimg=: 0 255 0 makeRGB 5 8       NB. create a green bitmap with height 5 and width 8   myimg=: 0 0 255 fillRGB myimg     NB. fill myimg with blue   colors=: 0 255 {~ #: i.8          NB. black,blue,green,cyan,red,magenta,yellow,white   myimg=: colors fillRGB myimg      NB. fill myimg with vertical stripes of colors   2 4 getPixels myimg               NB. get the pixel color from point (2, 4)255 0 0    myimg=: (2 4 ; 255 255 255) setPixels myimg   NB. set pixel at point (2, 4) to white   2 4 getPixels myimg               NB. get the pixel color from point (2, 4)255 255 255    }:\$ myimg                         NB. get height and width of the image5 8`

`getPixels` and `setPixels` are generalized to set and get lists/arrays of pixels.

`pixellist=: ,"0/~ i. 10  NB. row and column indices for 10 by 10 block of pixels NB. create 10 by 10 block of magenta pixels in the middle of a 300 by 300 green imagemyimg=: ((145 + pixellist) ; 255 0 255) setPixels 0 255 0 makeRGB 300 300 NB. get pixel color for 10x10 block offset from magenta blocksubimg=: (140 + pixellist) getPixels myimg`

To display the image in a window at any point for verification:

`require 'viewmat'viewRGB=: [: viewrgb 256&#. viewRGB myimg`

Note that height comes before width here. This is inconsistent with marketing of display resolutions, but matches J's treatment of dimensions.

## Java

Solution
Library: AWT
`import java.awt.Color;import java.awt.Graphics;import java.awt.Image;import java.awt.image.BufferedImage; public class BasicBitmapStorage {     private final BufferedImage image;     public BasicBitmapStorage(int width, int height) {        image = new BufferedImage(width, height, BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB);    }     public void fill(Color c) {        Graphics g = image.getGraphics();        g.setColor(c);        g.fillRect(0, 0, image.getWidth(), image.getHeight());    }     public void setPixel(int x, int y, Color c) {        image.setRGB(x, y, c.getRGB());    }     public Color getPixel(int x, int y) {        return new Color(image.getRGB(x, y));    }     public Image getImage() {        return image;    }}`
Test Program
Library: JUnit
`import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals; import java.awt.Color;import org.junit.Test; public class BasicBitmapStorageTest {     @Test    public void testHappy() {        int width = 640;        int height = 480;         BasicBitmapStorage bbs = new BasicBitmapStorage(width, height);        bbs.fill(Color.CYAN);        bbs.setPixel(width / 2, height / 2, Color.BLACK);        Color c1 = bbs.getPixel(width / 2, height / 2);        Color c2 = bbs.getPixel(20, 20);         assertEquals(Color.BLACK, c1);        assertEquals(Color.CYAN, c2);    }}`

## JavaScript

JavaScript can interact with a drawing context using the HTML5 Canvas API.

` // Set up the canvasvar canvas = document.createElement("canvas"),    ctx = canvas.getContext("2d"),    width = 400, height = 400; ctx.canvas.width = width;ctx.canvas.height = height; // Optionaly add it to the current pagedocument.body.appendChild(canvas); // Draw an imagevar img = document.createElement("img");img.onload = function(){    // Draw the element into the top-left of the canvas    ctx.drawImage(img, 0, 0);};img.src = "//placehold.it/400x400"; // Fill the canvas with a solid blue colorctx.fillStyle = "blue";ctx.fillRect(0, 0, width, height); // Place a black pixel in the middle// Note that a pixel is a 1 by 1 rectangle// This is the fastest method as of 2012 benchmarksctx.fillStyle = "black";ctx.fillRect(width / 2, height / 2, 1, 1); `

## Julia

Works with: Julia version 0.6

Using packages (Images.jl, Colors.jl):

`using Images, Colors Base.hex(p::RGB{T}) where T = join(hex(c(p), 2) for c in (red, green, blue))function showhex(m::Matrix{RGB{T}}, pad::Integer=4) where T    for r in 1:size(m, 1)        println(" " ^ pad, join(hex.(m[r, :]), " "))    endend w, h = 5, 7cback = RGB(1, 0, 1)cfore = RGB(0, 1, 0) img = Array{RGB{N0f8}}(h, w);println("Uninitialized image:")showhex(img) fill!(img, cback)println("\nImage filled with background color:")showhex(img) img[2, 3] = cforeprintln("\nImage with a pixel set for foreground color:")showhex(img)`
Output:
```Uninitialized image:
10DFF8 7F0000 F84A00 0030DA 007F00
4A007F B0DDF8 7F0000 F84A00 00D0DB
0000F0 4A007F D0D9F8 7F0000 F84A00
DFF84A 000050 4A007F 50DAF8 7F0000
007F00 D9F84A 000010 4A007F 30DCF8
0050E0 007F00 DAF84A 000050 4A007F
F84A00 00B0D9 007F00 DBF84A 000050

Image filled with background color:
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF

Image with a pixel set for foreground color:
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF 00FF00 FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF
FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF FF00FF```

## KonsolScript

`function main() {  Var:Number shape;   Image:New(50, 50, shape)  Draw:RectFill(0, 0, 50, 50, 0xFF0000, shape)  //one to fill an image with a plain RED color   Draw:Pixel(30, 30, 0x0000FF, shape)           //set a given pixel at (30,30) with a BLUE color   while (B1 == false) {    Image:Blit(10, 10, shape, screen)    Screen:Render()  }}`

## Kotlin

Translation of: Java
`// version 1.1.4-3 import java.awt.Colorimport java.awt.Graphicsimport java.awt.image.BufferedImage class BasicBitmapStorage(width: Int, height: Int) {    val image = BufferedImage(width, height, BufferedImage.TYPE_3BYTE_BGR)     fun fill(c: Color) {        val g = image.graphics        g.color = c        g.fillRect(0, 0, image.width, image.height)    }     fun setPixel(x: Int, y: Int, c: Color) = image.setRGB(x, y, c.getRGB())     fun getPixel(x: Int, y: Int) = Color(image.getRGB(x, y))} fun main(args: Array<String>) {    val width = 640    val height = 480    val bbs = BasicBitmapStorage(width, height)    with (bbs) {        fill(Color.cyan)        setPixel(width / 2, height / 2, Color.black)        val c1 = getPixel(width / 2, height / 2)        val c2 = getPixel(20, 20)        print("The color of the pixel at (\${width / 2}, \${height / 2}) is ")        println(if (c1 == Color.black) "black" else "unknown")        print("The color of the pixel at (120, 120) is ")        println(if (c2 == Color.cyan) "cyan" else "unknown")    }}`
Output:
```The color of the pixel at (320, 240) is black
The color of the pixel at (120, 120) is cyan
```

## Lingo

`-- Creates a new image object of size 640x480 pixel and 32-bit color depthimg = image(640, 480, 32) -- Fills image with plain redimg.fill(img.rect, rgb(255,0,0)) -- Gets the color value of the pixel at point (320, 240)col = img.getPixel(320, 240) -- Changes the color of the pixel at point (320, 240) to blackimg.setPixel(320, 240, rgb(0,0,0))`

## LiveCode

LiveCode has built in support for importing and exporting PBM, JPEG, GIF, BMP or PNG graphics formats

`    -- create an image container box at the center of the current stack window with default properties   create image "test"   -- programtically choose the paint bucket tool   choose bucket tool   -- LiveCode engine has built-in color keywords:   set the brushColor to "dark green"   -- programtically mouse click at the center of image container box to fill   click at the loc of image "test"   -- get the RGBA values of the first pixel in the image box   put byteToNum(byte 1 of the imageData of image "test") into tRed   put byteToNum(byte 2 of the imageData of image "test") into tGreen   put byteToNum(byte 3 of the imageData of image "test") into tBlue   put byteToNum(byte 4 of the imageData of image "test") into tAlpha   -- log message the info in the message box   put "First Pixel Color is Red:"& tRed &" Green:"& tGreen &" Blue:"& tBlue &" Transparency:"& tAlpha   -- just for fun replace the contents with RosettaCode logo   wait 2 seconds   set the filename of image "test" to "http://rosettacode.org/mw/title.png"    -- the next line is copy of the Write a PPM task:   export image "test" to file "~/Test.PPM" as paint -- paint format is one of PBM, PGM, or PPM `

## Lua

### Original

`function Allocate_Bitmap( width, height )    local bitmap = {}    for i = 1, width do        bitmap[i] = {}        for j = 1, height do            bitmap[i][j] = {}        end    end    return bitmapend function Fill_Bitmap( bitmap, color )    for i = 1, #bitmap do        for j = 1, #bitmap[1] do            bitmap[i][j] = color        end    endend function Get_Pixel( bitmap, x, y )    return bitmap[x][y]end`

This can be used like:

`bitmap = Allocate_Bitmap( 100, 50 )Fill_Bitmap( bitmap, { 15, 200, 80 } )pixel = Get_Pixel( bitmap, 20, 25 )print( pixel[1], pixel[2], pixel[3] )`

### Alternate

A more object-oriented and extensible approach for easier re-use elsewhere.

`local Bitmap = {  new = function(self, width, height)    local instance = setmetatable({ width=width, height=height }, self)    instance:alloc()    return instance  end,  alloc = function(self)   self.pixels = {}    for y = 1, self.height do      self.pixels[y] = {}      for x = 1, self.width do        self.pixels[y][x] = 0x00000000      end    end  end,  clear = function(self, c)    for y = 1, self.height do      for x = 1, self.width do        self.pixels[y][x] = c or 0x00000000      end    end  end,  get = function(self, x, y)    x, y = math.floor(x+1), math.floor(y+1) -- given 0-based indices, use 1-based indices    if ((x>=1) and (x<=self.width) and (y>=1) and (y<=self.height)) then      return self.pixels[y][x]    else      return nil    end  end,  set = function(self, x, y, c)    x, y = math.floor(x+1), math.floor(y+1) -- given 0-based indices, use 1-based indices    if ((x>=1) and (x<=self.width) and (y>=1) and (y<=self.height)) then      self.pixels[y][x] = c or 0x00000000    end  end,}Bitmap.__index = Bitmapsetmetatable(Bitmap, { __call = function (t, ...) return t:new(...) end })`

Usage:

`local bitmap = Bitmap(32,32) -- default pixel representation is 32-bit packed ARGB on [0,255]bitmap:clear(0xFFFF0000) -- fill with redbitmap:set(1, 1, 0xFF00FF00) -- one green pixelbitmap:set(2, 2, 0xFF0000FF) -- one blue pixelprint(string.format("pixel at 0,0 = %x", bitmap:get(0,0)))print(string.format("pixel at 1,1 = %x", bitmap:get(1,1)))print(string.format("pixel at 2,2 = %x", bitmap:get(2,2))) -- but note that pixel representation is agnostic..-- (it's just a wrapper around a 2d-array of any valid type) -- want to switch to RGB-tuple on [0,1]??bitmap:clear({1,0,0}) -- fill with redbitmap:set(1, 1, {0,1,0}) -- one green pixelbitmap:set(2, 2, {0,0,1}) -- one blue pixelprint(string.format("pixel at 0,0 = %s", table.concat(bitmap:get(0,0),", ")))print(string.format("pixel at 1,1 = %s", table.concat(bitmap:get(1,1),", ")))print(string.format("pixel at 2,2 = %s", table.concat(bitmap:get(2,2),", "))) -- or strings??bitmap:clear("red") -- fill with redbitmap:set(1, 1, "green") -- one green pixelbitmap:set(2, 2, "blue") -- one blue pixelprint(string.format("pixel at 0,0 = %s", bitmap:get(0,0)))print(string.format("pixel at 1,1 = %s", bitmap:get(1,1)))print(string.format("pixel at 2,2 = %s", bitmap:get(2,2)))`

Caveat: Just be aware that as currently written the storage of complex types are referenced rather than copied. So, for example, using the clear() method with a table representing an RGB-tuple, will store the same identical reference throughout the bitmap - so direct modification of any one pixel's internal components would affect all other pixels as well. You should override the clear() method as appropriate to better support your desired pixel representation if this is not the behavior you desire.

Output:
```pixel at 0,0 = ffff0000
pixel at 1,1 = ff00ff00
pixel at 2,2 = ff0000ff
pixel at 0,0 = 1, 0, 0
pixel at 1,1 = 0, 1, 0
pixel at 2,2 = 0, 0, 1
pixel at 0,0 = red
pixel at 1,1 = green
pixel at 2,2 = blue```

## M2000 Interpreter

The easy way is to make a function to return an object with all functions on it, for specific image. We have to make the image in a way to render it to screen. The render statement get data in a string using a header of 12 characters (24 bytes). Raster lines are in down-top order. So last raster line is the top one. Also RGB is BGR in this data structure. Raster lines has to be aligned proper, so we may have add some bytes.

There are four functions (lambda functions) in the returned group, each of them has closures, an one of that closure is a pointer to a buffer object. We use this object to set and get pixels.

First two functions are for set and get pixel. Third return image as a string. Forth function copy an image as string to buffer, if they have the same width and height (else we get error)

### P3 ppm

` \ Bitmap width in pixels, height in pixels\ Return a group object with some lambda as members: SetPixel, GetPixel, Image\$\ copyimage\ using Copy x, y Use Image\$ we can display image\$ to x, y  as twips\ we can use  x*twipsx, y*twipsy  for x,y as  pixelsFunction Bitmap (x as long, y as long) {      if x<1 or y<1 then  Error "Wrong dimensions"      structure rgb {            red as byte            green as byte            blue as byte      }      m=len(rgb)*x mod 4      if m>0 then m=4-m  ' add some bytes to raster line      m+=len(rgb) *x      Structure rasterline {            {                   pad as byte*m            }               \\ union pad+hline            hline as rgb*x      }       Structure Raster {            magic as integer*4            w as integer*4            h as integer*4            lines as rasterline*y      }      Buffer Clear Image1 as Raster      \\ 24 chars as header to be used from bitmap render build in functions      Return Image1, 0!magic:="cDIB", 0!w:=Hex\$(x,2), 0!h:=Hex\$(y, 2)      \\ fill white (all 255)      \\ Str\$(string) convert to ascii, so we get all characters from words  width to byte width      Return Image1, 0!lines:=Str\$(String\$(chrcode\$(255), Len(rasterline)*y))      Buffer Clear Pad as Byte*4      SetPixel=Lambda Image1, Pad,aLines=Len(Raster)-Len(Rasterline), blines=-Len(Rasterline) (x, y, c) ->{            where=alines+3*x+blines*y            if c>0 then c=color(c)            c-!            Return Pad, 0:=c as long            Return Image1, 0!where:=Eval(Pad, 2) as byte, 0!where+1:=Eval(Pad, 1) as byte, 0!where+2:=Eval(Pad, 0) as byte       }      GetPixel=Lambda Image1,aLines=Len(Raster)-Len(Rasterline), blines=-Len(Rasterline) (x,y) ->{            where=alines+3*x+blines*y            =color(Eval(image1, where+2 as byte), Eval(image1, where+1 as byte), Eval(image1, where as byte))      }      StrDib\$=Lambda\$ Image1, Raster -> {            =Eval\$(Image1, 0, Len(Raster))      }      CopyImage=Lambda Image1 (image\$) -> {            if left\$(image\$,12)=Eval\$(Image1, 0, 24 ) Then  {                   Return Image1, 0:=Image\$            } Else Error "Can't Copy Image"      }      Group Bitmap {            SetPixel=SetPixel            GetPixel=GetPixel            Image\$=StrDib\$            Copy=CopyImage      }      =Bitmap}A=Bitmap(100,100)Call A.SetPixel(50,50, color(128,0,255))Print A.GetPixel(50,50)=color(128,0,255)\\ display image to screen at 100, 50 pixelcopy 100*twipsx,50*twipsy use A.Image\$()A1=Bitmap(100,100)Call A1.copy(A.Image\$())copy 500*twipsx,50*twipsy use A1.Image\$()  `

### P6 ppm

Need Version 9.4, Rev >=19

` Module  P6 {      Function Bitmap  {            def x as long, y as long, Import as boolean             If match("NN") then {                 Read x, y            } else.if Match("N") Then  {                  \\ is a file?                  Read f as long                  buffer whitespace as byte                  if not Eof(f) then {                        get #f, whitespace :P6\$=eval\$(whitespace)                        get #f, whitespace : P6\$+=eval\$(whitespace)                        def boolean getW=true, getH=true, getV=true                        def long v                        \\ str\$("P6") has 2 bytes. "P6" has 4 bytes                        If p6\$=str\$("P6") Then {                              do {                                    get #f, whitespace                                    if Eval\$(whitespace)=str\$("#") then {                                          do {get #f, whitespace} until eval(whitespace)=10                                    } else  {                                         select case eval(whitespace)                                          case 32, 9, 13, 10                                          { if getW and x<>0 then {                                                      getW=false                                                } else.if getH  and y<>0 then {                                                      getH=false                                                } else.if getV and v<>0 then {                                                      getV=false                                                }                                          }                                          case 48 to 57                                          {if getW then {                                                     x*=10                                                     x+=eval(whitespace, 0)-48                                                } else.if getH then {                                                     y*=10                                                     y+=eval(whitespace, 0)-48                                                } else.if getV then {                                                     v*=10                                                     v+=eval(whitespace, 0)-48                                                }                                          }                                          End Select                                    }                                    iF eof(f) then Error "Not a ppm file"                              } until getV=false                        }  else Error "Not a P6 ppm"                         Import=True                  }            } else Error "No proper arguments"             if x<1 or y<1 then  Error "Wrong dimensions"            structure rgb {                  red as byte                  green as byte                  blue as byte            }            m=len(rgb)*x mod 4            if m>0 then m=4-m  ' add some bytes to raster line            m+=len(rgb) *x            Structure rasterline {                  {                         pad as byte*m                  }                     hline as rgb*x            }            Structure Raster {                  magic as integer*4                  w as integer*4                  h as integer*4                  {                        linesB as byte*len(rasterline)*y                  }                  lines as rasterline*y            }            Buffer Clear Image1 as Raster            Return Image1, 0!magic:="cDIB", 0!w:=Hex\$(x,2), 0!h:=Hex\$(y, 2)            if not Import then  Return Image1, 0!lines:=Str\$(String\$(chrcode\$(255), Len(rasterline)*y))            Buffer Clear Pad as Byte*4            SetPixel=Lambda Image1, Pad,aLines=Len(Raster)-Len(Rasterline), blines=-Len(Rasterline) (x, y, c) ->{                  where=alines+3*x+blines*y                  if c>0 then c=color(c)                  c-!                  Return Pad, 0:=c as long                  Return Image1, 0!where:=Eval(Pad, 2) as byte, 0!where+1:=Eval(Pad, 1) as byte, 0!where+2:=Eval(Pad, 0) as byte            }            GetPixel=Lambda Image1,aLines=Len(Raster)-Len(Rasterline), blines=-Len(Rasterline) (x,y) ->{                  where=alines+3*x+blines*y                  =color(Eval(image1, where+2 as byte), Eval(image1, where+1 as byte), Eval(image1, where as byte))            }            StrDib\$=Lambda\$ Image1, Raster -> {                  =Eval\$(Image1, 0, Len(Raster))            }            CopyImage=Lambda Image1 (image\$) -> {                  if left\$(image\$,12)=Eval\$(Image1, 0, 24 ) Then  {                         Return Image1, 0:=Image\$                  } Else Error "Can't Copy Image"            }            Export2File=Lambda Image1, x, y (f) -> {                  Print #f, "P6";chr\$(10);"# Created using M2000 Interpreter";chr\$(10);                  Print #f, x;" ";y;" 255";chr\$(10);                  x2=x-1 :  where=0                  Buffer pad as byte*3                  For y1= 0 to y-1 {                        For x1=0 to x2 {                             Return pad, 0:=eval\$(image1, 0!linesB!where, 3)                             Push Eval(pad, 2) : Return pad, 2:=Eval(pad, 0), 0:=Number                             Put #f, pad : where+=3                        }                        m=where mod 4 : if m<>0 then where+=4-m                  }             }            if Import then {                  x0=x-1 : where=0                  Buffer Pad1 as byte*3                  For y1=y-1 to 0 {                        For x1=0 to x0 {Get #f, Pad1 : Push Eval(pad1, 2) : Return pad1, 2:=Eval(pad1, 0), 0:=Number                                                                  Return Image1, 0!linesB!where:=Eval\$(Pad1) : where+=3}                        m=where mod 4 : if m<>0 then where+=4-m}            }            Group Bitmap {                  SetPixel=SetPixel                  GetPixel=GetPixel                  Image\$=StrDib\$                  Copy=CopyImage                  ToFile=Export2File            }            =Bitmap      }      A=Bitmap(150,100)      For i=0  to 98  {            Call A.SetPixel(i, i, 0)            Call A.SetPixel(99, i, 0)      }      Call A.SetPixel(i,i,0)      Copy 200*twipsx, 100*twipsy use A.Image\$()      Profiler      Open "a.ppm" for output as #F      Call A.tofile(f)      Close #f      Print Filelen("a.ppm")      Print Timecount/1000;"sec"      Profiler      Image A.Image\$() Export "a.jpg", 100  ' per cent quality      Print Filelen("a.jpg")      Image A.Image\$() Export "a1.jpg", 10  ' per cent quality      Print Filelen("a1.jpg")      Image A.Image\$() Export "a.bmp"      Print Filelen("a.bmp")  ' no compression      Print Timecount/1000;"sec"      Move 5000,5000   ' twips      Image "a.jpg"      Move 5000,8000      Image "a1.jpg"      Move 8000, 5000      Image "a.bmp"     }P6 `

Export using M2000 code for ppm is slower than using internal jpg and bmp encoders. Jpg encoder has a 100% quality, and because this image is black and white we get the best compression. Time 0.304sec is for three exports, two jpg and one bmp.

Output:
```     45049
47.3661341sec
1018
691
45254
0.3040944sec
```

## Maple

`allocateImg := proc(width, height)	return Array(1..width, 1..height, 1..3);end proc:fillColor := proc(img, rgb::list)	local i;	for i from 1 to 3 do		img[..,..,i] := map(x->rgb[i], img[..,..,i]):	end do:end proc:setColor := proc(x, y, img, rgb::list)	local i:	for i from 1 to 3 do		img[x,y,i] := rgb[i]:	end do:end proc:getColor := proc(x,y,img)	local rgb,i:	rgb := Array(1..3):	for i from 1 to 3 do		rgb(i) := img[x,y,i]:	end do:	return rgb:end proc:`
Use:
```a := allocateImg(200,200);
fillColor(a,[255,223,0]);
setColor(150,150, a, [0,0,0]);
getColor(150,150,a);
#Output the image
ImageTools:-Embed(ImageTools:-Create(a))```

## Mathematica / Wolfram Language

In Mathematica 7/8:

`img = Image[ConstantArray[{1, 0, 0}, {1000, 1000}]];img = ReplacePart[img, {1, 1, 1} -> {0, 0, 1}];ImageValue[img, {1, 1}]`

In Mathematica 9:

`img = Image[ConstantArray[{1, 0, 0}, {1000, 1000}]];img = ReplacePixelValue[img, {1, 1} -> {0, 0, 1}];ImageValue[img, {1, 1}]`

## MATLAB

Save this in a file named Bitmap.mat in a folder named @Bitmap in your MATLAB root directory.

` %Bitmap class%%Implements a class to manage bitmap images without the need for the%various conversion and display functions%%Available functions:%%fill(obj,color)%setPixel(obj,pixel,color)%getPixel(obj,pixel,[optional: color channel])%display(obj)%disp(obj)%plot(obj)%image(obj)%save(obj)%open(obj) classdef Bitmap     %% Public Properties    properties         %Channel arrays        red;        green;        blue;     end     %% Public Methods    methods         %Creates image and defaults it to black        function obj = Bitmap(width,height)            obj.red   = zeros(height,width,'uint8');            obj.green = zeros(height,width,'uint8');            obj.blue  = zeros(height,width,'uint8');        end % End Bitmap Constructor         %Fill the image with a specified color        %color = [red green blue] max for each is 255        function fill(obj,color)            obj.red(:,:)   = color(1);            obj.green(:,:) = color(2);            obj.blue(:,:)  = color(3);            assignin('caller',inputname(1),obj); %saves the changes to the object        end         %Set a pixel to a specified color        %pixel = [x y]        %color = [red green blue]        function setPixel(obj,pixel,color)            obj.red(pixel(2),pixel(1))   = color(1);            obj.green(pixel(2),pixel(1)) = color(2);            obj.blue(pixel(2),pixel(1))  = color(3);            assignin('caller',inputname(1),obj); %saves the changes to the object        end         %Get pixel color        %pixel = [x y]        %varargin can be:        %  no input for all channels        %  'r' or 'red' for red channel        %  'g' or 'green' for green channel        %  'b' or 'blue' for blue channel        function color = getPixel(obj,pixel,varargin)             if( ~isempty(varargin) )                switch (varargin{1})                    case {'r','red'}                        color = obj.red(pixel(2),pixel(1));                    case {'g','green'}                        color = obj.red(pixel(2),pixel(1));                    case {'b','blue'}                        color = obj.red(pixel(2),pixel(1));                end            else                color = [obj.red(pixel(2),pixel(1)) obj.green(pixel(2),pixel(1)) obj.blue(pixel(2),pixel(1))];            end         end         %Display the image        %varargin can be:        %  no input for all channels        %  'r' or 'red' for red channel        %  'g' or 'green' for green channel        %  'b' or 'blue' for blue channel        function display(obj,varargin)             if( ~isempty(varargin) )                switch (varargin{1})                    case {'r','red'}                        image(obj.red)                    case {'g','green'}                        image(obj.green)                    case {'b','blue'}                        image(obj.blue)                end                 colormap bone;            else                bitmap = cat(3,obj.red,obj.green,obj.blue);                image(bitmap);            end        end         %Overload several commonly used display functions        function disp(obj,varargin)            display(obj,varargin{:});        end         function plot(obj,varargin)            display(obj,varargin{:});        end         function image(obj,varargin)            display(obj,varargin{:});        end         %Saves the image        function save(obj)             %Open file dialogue            [fileName,pathName,success] = uiputfile({'*.bmp','Bitmap Image (*.bmp)'},'Save Bitmap As');             if( not(success == 0) )                imwrite(cat(3,obj.red,obj.green,obj.blue),[pathName fileName],'bmp'); %Write image file to disk                disp('Save Complete');            end        end         %Opens an image and overwrites what is currently stored        function success = open(obj)             %Open file dialogue            [fileName,pathName,success] = uigetfile({'*.bmp','Bitmap Image (*.bmp)'},'Open Bitmap ');             if( not(success == 0) )                 channels = imread([pathName fileName], 'bmp'); %returns color indexed data                 %Store each channel                obj.red   = channels(:,:,1);                obj.green = channels(:,:,2);                obj.blue  = channels(:,:,3);                 assignin('caller',inputname(1),obj); %saves the changes to the object                success = true;                return            else                success = false;                return            end        end      end %methodsend %classdef `

Sample Usage:

` >> img = Bitmap(20,30);>> img.fill([30 30 150]);>> img.setPixel([10 15],[20 130 66]);>> disp(img)>> img.getPixel([10 15]) ans =    20  130   66 >> img.getPixel([10 15],'red') ans =    20 >> img.save()Save Complete `

## MAXScript

MAXScript provides a built-in Bitmap class.

`local myBitmap = bitmap 512 512`

Filling the image with a single colour can be accomplished at creation time by setting the color property.

`local myBitmap = bitmap 512 512 color:(color 128 128 128)`

Use setPixels to set the colour of a pixel. This function takes an array of colours and is optimised to set the colours of a whole row of pixels.

`setPixels myBitmap [256, 256] #((color 255 255 255))`

Use getPixels to retrieve the colour of a pixel. As with setPixels, this function is optimised to retrieve one row at a time as an array of colour values.

`local myPixel = getPixels myBitmap [256, 256] 1`

## Modula-3

Since this code is for use with other tasks, it uses an interface as well as the implementation module.

`INTERFACE Bitmap; TYPE UByte = BITS 8 FOR [0 .. 16_FF];     Pixel = RECORD R, G, B: UByte; END;     Point = RECORD x, y: UByte; END;     T = REF ARRAY OF ARRAY OF Pixel; CONST  Black = Pixel{0, 0, 0};  White = Pixel{255, 255, 255};  Red = Pixel{255, 0, 0};  Green = Pixel{0, 255, 0};  Blue = Pixel{0, 0, 255};  Yellow = Pixel{255, 255, 0}; EXCEPTION BadImage;          BadColor; PROCEDURE NewImage(height, width: UByte): T RAISES {BadImage};PROCEDURE Fill(VAR pic: T; color: Pixel);PROCEDURE GetPixel(VAR pic: T; point: Point): Pixel RAISES {BadColor};PROCEDURE SetPixel(VAR pic: T; point: Point; color: Pixel); END Bitmap.`
`MODULE Bitmap; PROCEDURE NewImage(height, width: UByte): T RAISES {BadImage} =  (* To make things easier, limit image size to also      be UByte (0 to 255), and to have equal dimensions. *)  BEGIN    IF height # width THEN      RAISE BadImage;    END;    RETURN NEW(T, height, width);  END NewImage; PROCEDURE Fill(VAR pic: T; color: Pixel) =  BEGIN    FOR i := FIRST(pic^) TO LAST(pic^) DO      FOR j := FIRST(pic[0]) TO LAST(pic[0]) DO        pic[i,j] := color;      END;    END;  END Fill; PROCEDURE GetPixel(VAR pic: T; point: Point): Pixel RAISES {BadColor} =  VAR pixel := pic[point.x, point.y];  BEGIN    IF pixel = White THEN      RETURN White;    ELSIF pixel = Black THEN      RETURN Black;    ELSIF pixel = Red THEN      RETURN Red;    ELSIF pixel = Green THEN      RETURN Green;    ELSIF pixel = Blue THEN      RETURN Blue;    ELSIF pixel = Yellow THEN      RETURN Yellow;    ELSE      RAISE BadColor;    END;  END GetPixel; PROCEDURE SetPixel(VAR pic: T; point: Point; color: Pixel) =  BEGIN    pic[point.x, point.y] := color;  END SetPixel; BEGINEND Bitmap.`

## Nim

`type  Luminance* = uint8  Index* = int   Color* = tuple    r, g, b: Luminance   Image* = ref object    w*, h*: Index    pixels*: seq[Color]   Point* = tuple    x, y: Index proc color*(r, g, b: SomeInteger): Color =  ## Build a color value from R, G and B values.  result.r = r.uint8  result.g = g.uint8  result.b = b.uint8 const  Black* = color(  0,   0,   0)  White* = color(255, 255, 255) proc newImage*(width, height: int): Image =  ## Create an image with given width and height.  new(result)  result.w = width  result.h = height  result.pixels.setLen(width * height) iterator indices*(img: Image): Point =  ## Yield the pixels coordinates as tuples.  for y in 0 ..< img.h:    for x in 0 ..< img.w:      yield (x, y) proc `[]`*(img: Image; x, y: int): Color =  ## Get a pixel RGB value.  img.pixels[y * img.w + x] proc `[]=`*(img: Image; x, y: int; c: Color) =  ## Set a pixel RGB value to given color.  img.pixels[y * img.w + x] = c proc fill*(img: Image; color: Color) =  ## Fill the image with a color.  for x, y in img.indices:    img[x, y] = color proc print*(img: Image) =  ## Output an ASCII representation of the image.  for x, y in img.indices:    if x mod img.w == 0:      stdout.write '\n'    stdout.write if img[x, y] == White: '.' else: 'H'  stdout.write '\n' when isMainModule:  var img = newImage(100, 20)  img.fill color(255, 255, 255)  img[1, 2] = color(255, 0, 0)  img[3, 4] = img[1, 2]  img.print`

## OCaml

`let new_img ~width ~height =  let all_channels =    let kind = Bigarray.int8_unsigned    and layout = Bigarray.c_layout    in    Bigarray.Array3.create kind layout 3 width height  in  let r_channel = Bigarray.Array3.slice_left_2 all_channels 0  and g_channel = Bigarray.Array3.slice_left_2 all_channels 1  and b_channel = Bigarray.Array3.slice_left_2 all_channels 2  in  (all_channels,   r_channel,   g_channel,   b_channel)`

and here is the type of the raster image this function returns:

```type raster =
(int, Bigarray.int8_unsigned_elt, Bigarray.c_layout) Bigarray.Array3.t *
(int, Bigarray.int8_unsigned_elt, Bigarray.c_layout) Bigarray.Array2.t *
(int, Bigarray.int8_unsigned_elt, Bigarray.c_layout) Bigarray.Array2.t *
(int, Bigarray.int8_unsigned_elt, Bigarray.c_layout) Bigarray.Array2.t
```

What is particular with this allocation and its associated type is that there is not only one buffer for each RGB channel, but also an additionnal one that handles all the three channels, and what is important here is that it is not additionnal memory, the memory is shared, so there are 2 ways to access the raster buffer: through the separated RGB channels, or through the joint channel (all_channels).

This solution have a lot of advantages across a more naive one: this type is compatible to memory-map a file (a ppm file for instance, where the data is not compressed), the buffer can be shared/exchanged with C (for OpenGL textures for instance), etc.

A more naive form would be this one:

`let new_img ~width ~height =  let r_channel, g_channel, b_channel =    let kind = Bigarray.int8_unsigned    and layout = Bigarray.c_layout    in    (Bigarray.Array2.create kind layout width height,     Bigarray.Array2.create kind layout width height,     Bigarray.Array2.create kind layout width height)  in  (r_channel,   g_channel,   b_channel)`

Here are the functions to fill with a color and to set one given pixel:

`let fill_img ~img:(_, r_channel, g_channel, b_channel) ~color:(r,g,b) =  Bigarray.Array2.fill r_channel r;  Bigarray.Array2.fill g_channel g;  Bigarray.Array2.fill b_channel b;;;`
`let put_pixel_unsafe (_, r_channel, g_channel, b_channel) (r,g,b) =  (fun x y ->    r_channel.{x,y} <- r;    g_channel.{x,y} <- g;    b_channel.{x,y} <- b;  )`
`let get_pixel_unsafe (_, r_channel, g_channel, b_channel) =  (fun x y ->    (r_channel.{x,y},     g_channel.{x,y},     b_channel.{x,y})  )`

we can overload these functions to make some bound checks:

`let put_pixel img color x y =  let _, r_channel,_,_ = img in  let width = Bigarray.Array2.dim1 r_channel  and height = Bigarray.Array2.dim2 r_channel in   if (x < 0) || (x >= width) then invalid_arg "x out of bounds";  if (y < 0) || (y >= height) then invalid_arg "y out of bounds";   let r, g, b = color in  if (r < 0) || (r > 255) then invalid_arg "red out of bounds";  if (g < 0) || (g > 255) then invalid_arg "green out of bounds";  if (b < 0) || (b > 255) then invalid_arg "blue out of bounds";   put_pixel_unsafe img color x y;;; let get_pixel ~img ~pt:(x, y) =  let _, r_channel,_,_ = img in  let width = Bigarray.Array2.dim1 r_channel  and height = Bigarray.Array2.dim2 r_channel in  if (x < 0) || (x >= width) then invalid_arg "x out of bounds";  if (y < 0) || (y >= height) then invalid_arg "y out of bounds";  get_pixel_unsafe img x y;;;`

and a function to get the dimensions:

`let get_dims ~img:(_, r_channel, _, _) =  let width = Bigarray.Array2.dim1 r_channel  and height = Bigarray.Array2.dim2 r_channel in  (width, height)`

## Octave

In Octave, images are matrix. A grayscale W×H image is stored as a W×H matrix, and RGB W×H image is stored as a W×H×3 image. Possible levels depend on the class of the storage: if it is double, the intensity is a floating point double number between 0 and 1; if it is uint8, the intensity is from 0 to 255; if it is uint16, the intensity is between 0 and 65535.

`im = zeros(W, H, 3, "uint8"); % create an RGB image of width W and height H                              % and intensity from 0 to 255; black (all zeros)im(:,:,1) = 255;              % set R to 255im(:,:,2) = 100;              % set G to 100im(:,:,3) = 155;              % set B to 155im(floor(W/2), floor(H/2), :) = 0;  % pixel in the center made blackdisp(im(floor(W/3), floor(H/3), :)) % display intensities of the pixel                                    % at W/3, H/3p = im(40,40,:); % or just store it in the vector p, so that                 % p(1) is R, p(2) G and p(3) is B`

We can hide this in helper functions like:

`function im = create_rgb_image(w, h)  im = zeros(w, h, 3, "uint8");endfunction function set_background(im, colorvector)  im(:,:,1) = colorvector(1);  im(:,:,2) = colorvector(2);  im(:,:,3) = colorvector(3);endfunction function set_pixel(im, coord, colorvector)  im(coord(1), coord(2), 1) = colorvector(1);  im(coord(1), coord(2), 2) = colorvector(2);  im(coord(1), coord(2), 3) = colorvector(3);endfunction function [r, g, b] = get_pixel(im, coord)  r = im(coord(1), coord(2), 1)  g = im(coord(1), coord(2), 2)  b = im(coord(1), coord(2), 3)endfunction`

The only thing to note is that indexing start from 1.

`%exampleim = create_rgb_image(200,200);for x = 1:128   im = set_pixel(im, [x, x], [200, 50, 220]);endfor % it seems like saveimage wants double class on [0,1]saveimage("image.ppm", function/double.html">double(im)./256, "ppm");`

## OxygenBasic

` 'GENERIC BITMAP type pixel byte r,g,b '===========class BitMap'=========== % sp   sizeof(pixel)sys    wx,wy,px,pystring bufsys    pbmethod Constructor(sys x=640,y=480) { wx=x : wy=y : buf=nuls x*y*sp : pb=strptr buf}method Destructor()                 {buf="" : wx=0 : wy=0 : pb=0}method GetPixel(sys x,y,pixel*p)    {copy @p,pb+(y*wx+x)*sp,sp}method SetPixel(sys x,y,pixel*p)    {copy pb+(y*wx+x)*sp,@p,sp}'method Fill(pixel*p)  sys i, e=wx*wy*sp+pb-1  for i=pb to e step sp {copy i,@p,sp}end method end class pixel p,q new BitMap m(400,400) 'width, height in pixels p<=100,120,140 'red,green,blue m.fill p m.getPixel 200,100,qprint "" q.r "," q.g "," q.b 'result 100,120,140q<=10,20,40m.setPixel 200,100,qm.getPixel 200,100,pprint "" p.r "," p.g "," p.b 'result 10,20,40  del m `

## Oz

We first create a 2D array data type as a functor in a file "Array2D.oz":

`functorexport   New   Get   Set   Transformdefine   fun {New Width Height Init}      C = {Array.new 1 Height unit}   in      for Row in 1..Height do	 C.Row := {Array.new 1 Width Init}      end       array2d(width:Width	      height:Height	      contents:C)   end    fun {Get array2d(contents:C ...) X Y}      C.Y.X   end    proc {Set array2d(contents:C ...) X Y Val}      C.Y.X := Val   end    proc {Transform array2d(contents:C width:W height:H ...) Fun}      for Y in 1..H do	 for X in 1..W do	    C.Y.X := {Fun C.Y.X}	 end      end   end    %% omitted: Clone, Map, Fold, ForAllend`

Based on this, we create a functor "Bitmap.oz":

`%% For real task prefer QTk's images:%% http://www.mozart-oz.org/home/doc/mozart-stdlib/wp/qtk/html/node38.html functorimport   Array2Dexport   New   Fill   GetPixel   SetPixeldefine   Black = color(0x00 0x00 0x00)    fun {New Width Height}      bitmap( {Array2D.new Width Height Black} )   end    proc {Fill bitmap(Arr) Color}      {Array2D.transform Arr fun {\$ _} Color end}   end    fun {GetPixel bitmap(Arr) X Y}      {Array2D.get Arr X Y}   end    proc {SetPixel bitmap(Arr) X Y Color}      {Array2D.set Arr X Y Color}   end    %% Omitted: MaxValue, ForAllPixels, Transformend`

Some functions that are used in other tasks were omitted. See here for the complete module definitions: Basic bitmap storage/Oz

## Pascal

`Interfaceuses  crt,   { GetDir }      graph; { function GetPixel } type { integer numbers }  { from unit bitmaps XPERT software production Tamer Fakhoury }  _bit     = \$00000000..\$00000001; {number 1 bit   without sign = (0..1) }  _byte    = \$00000000..\$000000FF; {number 1 byte  without sign = (0..255)}  _word    = \$00000000..\$0000FFFF; {number 2 bytes without sign = (0..65 535)}  _dWord   = \$00000000..\$7FFFFFFF; {number 4 bytes without sign = (0..4 294 967 296)}  _longInt = \$80000000..\$7FFFFFFF; {number 4 bytes with sign                                    = (-2 147 483 648..2 147 483 648}   TbmpFileHeader =  record    ID: _word;             { Must be 'BM' =19778=\$424D for windows }    FileSize: _dWord;      { Size of this file in bytes }    Reserved: _dWord;      { ??? }    bmpDataOffset: _dword; { = 54 = \$36 from begining of file to begining of bmp data }  end;   TbmpInfoHeader =  record    InfoHeaderSize: _dword;      { Size of Info header                                   = 28h = 40 (decimal)                                   for windows }    Width,    Height: _longInt;    { Width and Height of image in pixels }    Planes,              { number of planes of bitmap }    BitsPerPixel: _word; { Bits can be 1, 4, 8, 24 or 32 }    Compression,    bmpDataSize: _dword;    { in bytes rounded to the next 4 byte boundary }    XPixPerMeter,           { horizontal resolution in pixels }    YPixPerMeter: _longInt; { vertical }    NumbColorsUsed,    NumbImportantColors: _dword;   {= NumbColorUsed}  end; { TbmpHeader = Record ... }   T32Color =  record { 4 byte = 32 bit }    Blue:  byte;    Green: byte;    Red:   byte;    Alfa:  byte  end; var directory,    bmpFileName:    string;    bmpFile:        file; { untyped file }    bmpFileHeader:  TbmpFileHeader;    bmpInfoHeader:  TbmpInfoHeader;    color32:        T32Color;    RowSizeInBytes: integer;    BytesPerPixel:  integer; const defaultBmpFileName = 'test';      DefaultDirectory   = 'c:\bp\';      DefaultExtension   = '.bmp';      bmpFileHeaderSize  = 14;      { compression specyfication }      bi_RGB             = 0;  { compression }      bi_RLE8            = 1;      bi_RLE4            = 2;      bi_BITFIELDS       = 3;       bmp_OK          = 0;      bmp_NotBMP      = 1;      bmp_OpenError   = 2;      bmp_ReadError   = 3; Procedure CreateBmpFile32(directory: string; FileName: string;                           iWidth, iHeight: _LongInt); {************************************************}Implementation  {-----------------------------}{************************************************} Procedure CreateBmpFile32(directory: string; FileName: string;                           iWidth, iHeight: _LongInt);  var    x, y: integer;  begin    if directory = '' then      GetDir(0, directory);    if FileName = '' then      FileName: = DefaultBmpFileName;    { create a new file on a disk in a given directory with given name }    Assign(bmpFile, directory + FileName + DefaultExtension);    ReWrite(bmpFile, 1);     { fill the headers }    with bmpInfoHeader, bmpFileHeader do    begin      ID := 19778;      InfoheaderSize := 40;      width := iWidth;      height := iHeight;      BitsPerPixel := 32;      BytesPerPixel := BitsPerPixel div 8;      reserved := 0;      bmpDataOffset := InfoHeaderSize + bmpFileHeaderSize;      planes := 1;      compression := bi_RGB;      XPixPerMeter := 0;      YPixPerMeter := 0;      NumbColorsUsed := 0;      NumbImportantColors := 0;       RowSizeInBytes := (Width * BytesPerPixel); { only for >=8 bits per pixel }      bmpDataSize := height * RowSizeinBytes;      FileSize := InfoHeaderSize + bmpFileHeaderSize + bmpDataSize;       { copy headers to disk file }      BlockWrite(bmpFile, bmpFileHeader, bmpFileHeaderSize);      BlockWrite(bmpFile, bmpInfoHeader, infoHeaderSize);       { fill the pixel data area }      for y := (height - 1) downto 0  do      begin	for x := 0 to (width - 1) do	begin { Pixel(x,y) }	  color32.Blue  := 255;	  color32.Green := 0;	  color32.Red   := 0;	  color32.Alfa  := 0;	  BlockWrite(bmpFile, color32, 4);	end; { for x ... }      end; { for y ... }      Close(bmpFile);    end; { with bmpInfoHeader, bmpFileHeader }   end; { procedure } `

## Perl

Library: Imlib2
`#! /usr/bin/perl use strict; use Image::Imlib2; # create the "canvas"my \$img = Image::Imlib2->new(200,200); # fill with a plain RGB(A) color\$img->set_color(255, 0, 0, 255);\$img->fill_rectangle(0,0, 200, 200); # set a pixel to green (at 40,40)\$img->set_color(0, 255, 0, 255);\$img->draw_point(40,40); # "get" pixel rgb(a)my (\$red, \$green, \$blue, \$alpha) = \$img->query_pixel(40,40);undef \$img; # another way of creating a canvas with a bg colour (or from# an existing "raw" data)my \$col = pack("CCCC", 255, 255, 0, 0); # a, r, g, bmy \$img = Image::Imlib2->new_using_data(200, 200, \$col x (200 * 200)); exit 0;`

## Phix

Copy of Euphoria

`-- Some colour constants:constant black = #000000,--       blue  = #0000FF,--       green = #00FF00,--       red   = #FF0000,         white = #FFFFFF -- Create new image filled with some colourfunction new_image(integer width, integer height, integer fill_colour=black)    return repeat(repeat(fill_colour,height),width)end function -- Usage example:sequence image = new_image(800,600) -- Set pixel color:image[400][300] = white -- Get pixel colorinteger colour = image[400][300] -- Now colour is #FF0000`

## PHP

`class Bitmap {  public \$data;  public \$w;  public \$h;  public function __construct(\$w = 16, \$h = 16){    \$white = array_fill(0, \$w, array(255,255,255));    \$this->data = array_fill(0, \$h, \$white);    \$this->w = \$w;    \$this->h = \$h;  }  //Fills a rectangle, or the whole image with black by default  public function fill(\$x = 0, \$y = 0, \$w = null, \$h = null, \$color = array(0,0,0)){    if (is_null(\$w)) \$w = \$this->w;    if (is_null(\$h)) \$h = \$this->h;    \$w += \$x;    \$h += \$y;    for (\$i = \$y; \$i < \$h; \$i++){      for (\$j = \$x; \$j < \$w; \$j++){        \$this->setPixel(\$j, \$i, \$color);      }    }  }  public function setPixel(\$x, \$y, \$color = array(0,0,0)){    if (\$x >= \$this->w) return false;    if (\$x < 0) return false;    if (\$y >= \$this->h) return false;    if (\$y < 0) return false;    \$this->data[\$y][\$x] = \$color;  }  public function getPixel(\$x, \$y){    return \$this->data[\$y][\$x];  }} \$b = new Bitmap(16,16);\$b->fill();\$b->fill(2, 2, 18, 18, array(240,240,240));\$b->setPixel(0, 15, array(255,0,0));print_r(\$b->getPixel(3,3)); //(240,240,240)`

## PicoLisp

For time critical applications this would be done with inline-C in PicoLisp, but especially for small bitmaps the following makes sense.

`# Create an empty image of 120 x 90 pixels(setq *Ppm (make (do 90 (link (need 120))))) # Fill an image with a given color(de ppmFill (Ppm R G B)   (for Y Ppm      (map         '((X) (set X (list R G B)))         Y ) ) ) # Set pixel with a color(de ppmSetPixel (Ppm X Y R G B)   (set (nth Ppm Y X) (list R G B)) ) # Get the color of a pixel(de ppmGetPixel (Ppm X Y)   (get Ppm Y X) )`

## PL/I

` /* Declaration for an image, suitable for BMP files. */declare image(0:500, 0:500) bit (24) aligned; image = '000000000000000011111111'b;   /* Sets the entire image to red. */ image(10,40) = '111111110000000000000000'b;   /* Sets one pixel to blue. */ declare color bit (24) aligned;color = image(20,50); /* Obtain the color of a pixel */   /* To allocate an image of size (x,y) */allocate_image: procedure (image, x, y);   declare image (*, *) controlled bit (24) aligned;   declare (x, y) fixed binary (31);    allocate image (0:x, 0:y);end allocate_image; /* To use the above procedure, it's necessary to define   *//* the image in the calling program thus, for BMP images: */ declare image(*,*) controlled bit (24) aligned; `

## Processing

`PGraphics bitmap = createGraphics(100,100); // Create the bitmapbitmap.beginDraw();bitmap.background(255, 0, 0); // Fill bitmap with red rgb colorbitmap.endDraw();image(bitmap, 0, 0); // Place bitmap on screen.color b = color(0, 0, 255); // Define a blue rgb colorset(50, 50, b); // Set blue colored pixel in the middle of the screencolor c = get(50, 50); // Get the color of same pixelif(b == c) print("Color changed correctly"); // Verify `

## Prolog

` :- module(bitmap, [	new_bitmap/3,	fill_bitmap/3,	get_pixel0/3,	set_pixel0/4 ]). :- use_module(library(lists)). %-----------------------------------------------------------------------------%% Convenience Predicatesreplicate(Term,Times,L):-	length(L,Times),	maplist(=(Term),L). replace0(N,OL,E,NL):-	nth0(N,OL,_,TL),	nth0(N,NL,E,TL).%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------%% Bitmap Utilities%% The Bitmap structure is a list with pixels kept in row major order:% [dimensions-[X,Y],pixels-[[n11,n12...],[n21,n22...]]] % In this code what exactly an RGB value is doesn't matter however % in other bitmap tasks it is assumed to be a list [R,G,B] where% each is an int between 0 and 255, in code:rgb_pixel(RGB):-	length(RGB,3),	maplist(integer,RGB),	maplist(between(0,255),RGB). %new_bitmap(Bitmap,Dimensions,RGB)new_bitmap([[X,Y],Pixels],[X,Y],RGB) :-	replicate(RGB,X,Row),	replicate(Row,Y,Pixels). %fill_bitmap(New_Bitmap,Bitmap,RGB)fill_bitmap(New_Bitmap,[[X,Y],_],RGB) :-	new_bitmap(New_Bitmap,[X,Y],RGB). %here get and set use 0 based indexing%get_pixel0(Bitmap,Coordinates,RGB)get_pixel0([[_DimX,_DimY],Pixels],[X,Y],RGB) :-	nth0(Y,Pixels,Row),	nth0(X,Row,RGB). %set_pixel0(New Bitmap, Bitmap, Coordinates, RGB)set_pixel0([[DimX,DimY],New_Pixels],[[DimX,DimY],Pixels],[X,Y],RGB) :-	nth0(Y,Pixels,Row),	replace0(X,Row,RGB,New_Row),	replace0(Y,Pixels,New_Row,New_Pixels). `

## PureBasic

`w=800 : h=600CreateImage(1,w,h) ;1 is internal id of imageStartDrawing(ImageOutput(1)); fill with color redBox(0,0,w,h,\$ff); or using another (but slower) way in greenFillArea(0,0,-1,\$ff00); a green DotPlot(10,10,\$ff0000); check if we set it right (should be 255)Debug Blue(Point(10,10)) `

## R

Library: pixmap

R can write to most bitmap image formats by default (mostly for the purpose of saving graphs), however there is no built-in way of manipulating images. The pixmap package reads, writes and manipulates portable bitmap file types: PBM, PGM, PPM. See also, the image function, and the rimage and ReadImage packages, which use libjpeg to read JPEG and PNG files.

`#  See the class definitions and constructors with, e.g. getClass("pixmapIndexed", package=pixmap)pixmapIndexed # Image with all one colourplot(p1 <- pixmapIndexed(matrix(0, nrow=3, ncol=4), col="red")) # Image with one pixel specifiedcols <- rep("blue", 12); cols[7] <- "red"plot(p2 <- pixmapIndexed(matrix(1:12, nrow=3, ncol=4), col=cols)) # Retrieve colour of a pixelgetcol <- function(pm, i, j){   pmcol <- [email protected]   dim(pmcol) <- dim([email protected])   pmcol[i,j]   }getcol(p2, 3, 4)  #red`

## Racket

` #lang racket ;; The racket/draw libraries provide imperative drawing functions.;; http://docs.racket-lang.org/draw/index.html(require racket/draw) ;; To create an image with width and height, use the make-bitmap;; function. ;; For example, let's make a small image here:(define bm (make-bitmap 640 480)) ;; We use a drawing context handle, a "dc", to operate on the bitmap.(define dc (send bm make-dc)) ;; We can fill the bitmap with a color by using a combination of;; setting the background, and clearing.(send dc set-background (make-object color% 0 0 0)) ;; Color it black.(send dc clear) ;; Let's set a few pixels to a greenish color with set-pixel:(define aquamarine (send the-color-database find-color "aquamarine"))(for ([i 480])  (send dc set-pixel i i aquamarine)) ;; We can get at the color of a bitmap pixel by using the get-pixel;; method.  However, it may be faster to use get-argb-pixels if we;; need a block of the pixels.  Let's use get-argb-pixels and look;; at a row starting at (0, 42)(define buffer (make-bytes (* 480 4)))  ;; alpha, red, green, blue(send dc get-argb-pixels 0 42 480 1 buffer) ;; We can inspect the buffer(bytes-ref buffer 0) ;;  and see that the first pixel's alpha is 255,(bytes-ref buffer 1) ;;  and the red, green, and blue components are 0.(bytes-ref buffer 2)(bytes-ref buffer 3) ;; If we are using DrRacket, we can just print the bm as a toplevel expression;; to view the final image:bm `

## Raku

(formerly Perl 6)

`class Pixel { has UInt (\$.R, \$.G, \$.B) }class Bitmap {    has UInt (\$.width, \$.height);    has Pixel @!data;     method fill(Pixel \$p) {        @!data = \$p.clone xx (\$!width*\$!height)    }    method pixel(	\$i where ^\$!width,	\$j where ^\$!height	--> Pixel    ) is rw { @!data[\$i + \$j * \$!width] }     method set-pixel (\$i, \$j, Pixel \$p) {	self.pixel(\$i, \$j) = \$p.clone;    }    method get-pixel (\$i, \$j) returns Pixel {	self.pixel(\$i, \$j);    }} my Bitmap \$b = Bitmap.new( width => 10, height => 10); \$b.fill( Pixel.new( R => 0, G => 0, B => 200) ); \$b.set-pixel( 7, 5, Pixel.new( R => 100, G => 200, B => 0) ); say \$b.perl;`

Thanks to the rw trait on the pixel method, we don't actually need to define two separate methods, set-pixel and get-pixel, but that is an explicit requirement of the task. (Beware your presuppositions! In Raku, accessors only determine identity, not use. In particular, identity is considered orthogonal to lvalue/rvalue context.)

## RapidQ

QCanvas is an empty image on which you can draw. QForm is the main window of the application. The commands to draw on the canvas are in the procedure PaintCanvas, which is executed each time the canvas need to be (re)painted.

`DECLARE SUB PaintCanvas CREATE form AS QForm    Width  = 640    Height = 480    CREATE canvas AS QCanvas        Height  = form.ClientHeight	Width   = form.ClientWidth	OnPaint = PaintCanvas    END CREATEEND CREATE SUB PaintCanvas    ' Fill background    canvas.FillRect(0, 0, canvas.Width, canvas.Height, &H301000)     ' Draw a pixel    canvas.Pset(300, 200, &H00ddff)     ' Read pixel color    PRINT canvas.Pixel(300, 200)END SUB form.ShowModal`

## REXX

### version 1

The REXX language has no need to declare the size of (stemmed) arrays.

Indeed, there is no way to declare array sizes   (or any variable, for that matter).

The image (raster) created was also written to a file   (image.PPM)   to show verification of the image.

`/*REXX program demonstrates how to process/display a simple  RGB  raster graphics image.*/red   = 'ff 00 00'x                              /*a method to define a   red   value.  */blue  = '00 00 ff'x                              /*"    "    "    "   "   blue    "     */@.    =                                          /*define entire  @.  array  to  nulls. */outFN = 'image'                                  /*the filename of the output image PPM */sWidth = 500;     sHeight= 500                   /*the screen width and height in pixels*/call RGBfill      red                            /*set the entire   image   to red.     */            x= 10;       y= 40                   /*set pixel's coördinates.             */call RGBset x, y, blue                           /*set a pixel (at  10,40)  to blue.    */color = RGBget(x, y)                             /*get the color of a pixel.            */hexV  = c2x(color)                               /*get hex    value of pixel's color.   */binV  = x2b(hexV)                                /* "  binary   "    "    "      "      */bin3V = left(binV, 8)    substr(binV, 9, 8)    right(binV, 8)hex3V = left(hexV, 2)    substr(hexV, 3, 2)    right(hexV, 2)xy= '(' || x","y')'                              /*create a handy─dandy literal for SAY.*/say  xy    ' pixel in binary: '     binV         /*show the binary value of  20,50      */say  xy    ' pixel in binary: '     bin3V        /*show again, but with spaces.         */say                                              /*show a blank between binary and hex. */say  xy    ' pixel in hex:    '     hexV         /*show again, but in hexadecimal.      */say  xy    ' pixel in hex:    '     hex3V        /*show again, but with spaces.         */call PPMwrite outFN, sWidth, sHeight             /*create a PPM (output) file of image. */      /* ◄■■■■■■■■ not part of this task.*/say                                              /*show a blank.                        */say 'The file ' outFN".PPM  was created."        /*inform user that a file was created. */exit                                             /*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. *//*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/RGBfill:  @.=arg(1);                          return          /*fill image with a color.*/RGBget:   parse arg px,py;                    return @.px.py  /*get a pixel's color.    */RGBset:   parse arg px,py,p\$;  @.px.py=p\$;    return          /*set "    "      "       *//*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/PPMwrite: parse arg oFN, width, height           /*obtain output filename, width, height*/          oFID= oFN'.PPM';   \$='9'x;   #=255     /*fileID;  separator;  max color value.*/          call charout oFID, ,  1                /*set the position of the file's output*/          call charout oFID,'P6'width || \$ || height || \$ || # || \$    /*write hdr info.*/            do   j=1  for width              do k=1  for height;     call charout oFID, @.j.k              end   /*k*/                        /*  ↑          write the PPM file, ··· */            end     /*j*/                        /*  └───────── ··· one pixel at a time.*/          call charout oFID;      return         /*close the output file just to be safe*/`
output:
```(10,40)  pixel in binary:  000000000000000011111111
(10,40)  pixel in binary:  00000000 00000000 11111111

(10,40)  pixel in hex:     0000FF
(10,40)  pixel in hex:     00 00 FF

The file  image.PPM  was created.
```

### version 2

This program actually creates a BMP file

`/* REXX **************************************************************** Draw a picture from pixels* 16.06.2014 Walter Pachl**********************************************************************/oid='pic.bmp'; 'erase' oid blue ='FF0000'x;green='00FF00'x;red  ='0000FF'x;white='ffffff'x;black='000000'x; w=600                        /* width  */h=300                        /* height */w3=w*3 bfType         ='BM'bfSize         ='46000000'xbfReserved     ='00000000'xbfOffBits      ='36000000'xbiSize         ='28000000'xbiWidth        =lend(w)biHeight       =lend(h)biPlanes       ='0100'xbiBitCount     ='1800'xbiCompression  ='00000000'xbiSizeImage    ='10000000'xbiXPelsPerMeter='00000000'xbiYPelsPerMeter='00000000'xbiClrUsed      ='00000000'xbiClrImportant ='00000000'x s=bfType||,  bfSize||,  bfReserved||,  bfOffBits||,  biSize||,  biWidth||,  biHeight||,  biPlanes||,  biBitCount||,  biCompression||,  biSizeImage||,  biXPelsPerMeter||,  biYPelsPerMeter||,  biClrUsed||,  biClrImportant pic=copies(red,w*h)             /* fill the rectangle with color red */Call rect 100,100,180,180,green /* draw a green rectangle            */Call rect 100,100,160,160,blue  /* and a blue rectangle within that  */Call dot 120,120,white          /* one pixel is hardly visible       */Do x=98 To 102                  /* draw a square of 25 pixels        */  Do y=98 To 102    Call dot x,y,white    End  EndCall charout oid,s||pic         /* write the picture to file         */dmy=col(97,98)dmy=col(98,98)Exit lend: Procedure/*********************************************************************** compute the representation of a number (little endian)**********************************************************************/Parse Arg nres=reverse(d2c(n,4))rev=reverse(res)say 'lend:' arg(1) '->' c2x(res) '=>' c2d(rev)Return res rect: Procedure Expose pic w h w3/*********************************************************************** Fill a rectangle with center at x,y and width/height = wr/hr**********************************************************************/Parse Arg x,y,wr,hr,colorSay x y wr hr c2x(color)i=w3*(y-1)+3*(x-1)+1               /* Pixel position of center       */ia=max(w3*(y-1)+1,i-3*(wr%2))      /* position of left border        */ib=min(i+3*wr%2,w3*y)              /* position of right border       */lc=ib-ia                           /* length of horizontal line      */If lc>=0 Then Do  os=copies(color,lc%3)            /* the horizontal line            */  Do hi=-hr%2 to hr%2              /* loop from lower to upper border*/    i=trunc(ia+w3*hi)              /* position of line's left border */    If i>1 Then Do      pic=overlay(os,pic,i)        /* put the line into the picture  */      j=i%w3      End    End  EndReturn dot: Procedure Expose pic w h w3/*********************************************************************** Put a dot at position x/y into the picture**********************************************************************/Parse Arg x,y,colori=w3*(y-1)+3*(x-1)pic=overlay(color,pic,i+1)Return col: Procedure Expose pic w h w3/*********************************************************************** get the color at position x/y**********************************************************************/Parse Arg x,y,colori=w3*(y-1)+3*(x-1)say 'color at pixel' x'/'y'='c2x(substr(pic,i+1,3))Return c2x(substr(pic,i+1,3))`
Output:
```lend: 600 -> 58020000 => 600
lend: 300 -> 2C010000 => 300
100 100 180 180 00FF00
100 100 160 160 FF0000
color at pixel 97/98=FF0000
color at pixel 98/98=FFFFFF

and have a look at the file pic.bmp created by this program```

## Ruby

I haven't been able to find any kind of package for manipulating bitmap images, so let's roll one

`class RGBColour  def initialize(red, green, blue)    unless red.between?(0,255) and green.between?(0,255) and blue.between?(0,255)      raise ArgumentError, "invalid RGB parameters: #{[red, green, blue].inspect}"    end    @red, @green, @blue = red, green, blue  end  attr_reader :red, :green, :blue  alias_method :r, :red  alias_method :g, :green  alias_method :b, :blue   RED   = RGBColour.new(255,0,0)  GREEN = RGBColour.new(0,255,0)  BLUE  = RGBColour.new(0,0,255)  BLACK = RGBColour.new(0,0,0)  WHITE = RGBColour.new(255,255,255)end class Pixmap  def initialize(width, height)    @width = width    @height = height    @data = fill(RGBColour::WHITE)  end  attr_reader :width, :height   def fill(colour)    @data = Array.new(@width) {Array.new(@height, colour)}  end   def validate_pixel(x,y)    unless x.between?(0, @width-1) and y.between?(0, @height-1)      raise ArgumentError, "requested pixel (#{x}, #{y}) is outside dimensions of this bitmap"    end  end   def [](x,y)    validate_pixel(x,y)    @data[x][y]  end  alias_method :get_pixel, :[]   def []=(x,y,colour)    validate_pixel(x,y)    @data[x][y] = colour  end  alias_method :set_pixel, :[]=end`

## Rust

`#[derive(Copy, Clone, Debug, PartialEq, Eq)]pub struct Rgb {    pub r: u8,    pub g: u8,    pub b: u8,} impl Rgb {    pub fn new(r: u8, g: u8, b: u8) -> Self {        Rgb { r, g, b }    }     pub const BLACK: Rgb = Rgb { r: 0, g: 0, b: 0 };    pub const RED: Rgb = Rgb { r: 255, g: 0, b: 0 };    pub const GREEN: Rgb = Rgb { r: 0, g: 255, b: 0 };    pub const BLUE: Rgb = Rgb { r: 0, g: 0, b: 255 };} #[derive(Clone, Debug)]pub struct Image {    width: usize,    height: usize,    pixels: Vec<Rgb>,} impl Image {    pub fn new(width: usize, height: usize) -> Self {        Image {            width,            height,            pixels: vec![Rgb::BLACK; width * height],        }    }     pub fn width(&self) -> usize {        self.width    }     pub fn height(&self) -> usize {        self.height    }     pub fn fill(&mut self, color: Rgb) {        for pixel in &mut self.pixels {            *pixel = color;        }    }     pub fn get(&self, row: usize, col: usize) -> Option<&Rgb> {        if row >= self.width {            return None;        }        self.pixels.get(row * self.width + col)    }     pub fn get_mut(&mut self, row: usize, col: usize) -> Option<&mut Rgb> {        if row >= self.width {            return None;        }        self.pixels.get_mut(row * self.width + col)    }} fn main() {    let mut image = Image::new(16, 9);    assert_eq!(Some(&Rgb::BLACK), image.get(3, 4));    assert!(image.get(22, 3).is_none());     image.fill(Rgb::RED);    assert_eq!(Some(&Rgb::RED), image.get(3, 4));     if let Some(pixel) = image.get_mut(3, 4) {        *pixel = Rgb::GREEN;    }    assert_eq!(Some(&Rgb::GREEN), image.get(3, 4));     if let Some(pixel) = image.get_mut(3, 4) {        pixel.g -= 100;        pixel.b = 20;    }    assert_eq!(Some(&Rgb::new(0, 155, 20)), image.get(3, 4));}`

## Scala

### Java translation

Translation of: Java
`import java.awt.image.BufferedImageimport java.awt.Color class RgbBitmap(val width:Int, val height:Int) {   val image=new BufferedImage(width, height, BufferedImage.TYPE_3BYTE_BGR)    def fill(c:Color)={      val g=image.getGraphics()      g.setColor(c)      g.fillRect(0, 0, width, height)   }    def setPixel(x:Int, y:Int, c:Color)=image.setRGB(x, y, c.getRGB())   def getPixel(x:Int, y:Int)=new Color(image.getRGB(x, y))}`

Usage:

`val img=new RgbBitmap(50, 50);img.fill(Color.CYAN)img.setPixel(5, 5, Color.BLUE) assert(img.getPixel(1,1)==Color.CYAN)assert(img.getPixel(5,5)==Color.BLUE)assert(img.width==50)assert(img.height==50)`

### Scala idiom

A more Scalesque version could be with the use of its idiom:

Output:

Best experienced in your browser with Scastie (remote JVM).

`import java.awt.image.BufferedImageimport java.awt.Color object RgbBitmap extends App {  class RgbBitmap(val dim: (Int, Int)) {    def width = dim._1    def height = dim._2     private val image = new BufferedImage(width, height, BufferedImage.TYPE_3BYTE_BGR)     def apply(x: Int, y: Int) = new Color(image.getRGB(x, y))     def update(x: Int, y: Int, c: Color) = image.setRGB(x, y, c.getRGB)     def fill(c: Color) = {      val g = image.getGraphics      g.setColor(c)      g.fillRect(0, 0, width, height)    }  }   object RgbBitmap {    def apply(width: Int, height: Int) = new RgbBitmap(width, height)  }    /** Even Javanese style testing is still possible.    */  private val img0 = new RgbBitmap(50, 60) { // Wrappers to enable adhoc Javanese style    def getPixel(x: Int, y: Int) = this(x, y)    def setPixel(x: Int, y: Int, c: Color) = this(x, y) = c  }   img0.fill(Color.CYAN)  img0.setPixel(5, 6, Color.BLUE)  // Testing in Java style  assert(img0.getPixel(0, 1) == Color.CYAN)  assert(img0.getPixel(5, 6) == Color.BLUE)  assert(img0.width == 50)  assert(img0.height == 60)  println("Tests successfully completed with no errors found.")}`

## Scheme

Works with: Scheme version R${\displaystyle ^{5}}$RS

Definitions of list procedures:

`(define (make-list length object)  (if (= length 0)      (list)      (cons object (make-list (- length 1) object)))) (define (list-fill! list object)  (if (not (null? list))      (begin (set-car! list object) (list-fill! (cdr list) object)))) (define (list-set! list element object)  (if (= element 1)      (set-car! list object)      (list-set! (cdr list) (- element 1) object))) (define (list-get list element)  (if (= element 1)      (car list)      (list-get (cdr list) (- element 1))))`

Definitions of image procedures:

`(define (make-image columns rows)  (if (= rows 0)      (list)      (cons (make-list columns (list)) (make-image columns (- rows 1))))) (define (image-fill! image colour)  (if (not (null? image))      (begin (list-fill! (car image) colour) (image-fill! (cdr image) colour)))) (define (image-set! image column row colour)  (list-set! (list-get image row) column colour)) (define (image-get image column row)  (list-get (list-get image row) column))`

Definitions of some colours:

`(define *black* (list   0   0   0))(define *white* (list 255 255 255))(define *red*   (list 255   0   0))(define *green* (list   0 255   0))(define *blue*  (list   0   0 255))`

This creates a small image with a black background and a single blue pixel:

`(define image (make-image 3 2))(image-fill! image *black*)(image-set! image 2 1 *blue*)(display image)(newline)`
Output:
`(((0 0 0) (0 0 255) (0 0 0)) ((0 0 0) (0 0 0) (0 0 0)))`

## Seed7

The types and functions requested are predefined in the libraries graph.s7i and draw.s7i:

• The type to handle an RGB raster graphics image is PRIMITIVE_WINDOW.
• The function to create an image is newPixmap.
• An imaged can be filled with a color with clear.
• A given pixel can be set with point.
• The color of a pixel can be retrieved with getPixelColor.
`\$ include "seed7_05.s7i";  include "draw.s7i"; const proc: main is func  local    var PRIMITIVE_WINDOW: myPixmap is PRIMITIVE_WINDOW.value;    var color: myColor is black;  begin    myPixmap := newPixmap(300, 200);    clear(myPixmap, light_green);    point(myPixmap, 20, 30, color(256, 512, 768));    myColor := getPixelColor(myPixmap, 20, 30);    writeln(myColor.redLight <& " " <& myColor.greenLight <& " " <& myColor.blueLight);  end func;`

## SequenceL

`RGB ::= (R: int(0), G: int(0), B: int(0)); newBitmap: int * int -> RGB(2);newBitmap(width, height)[y, x] :=	 (R: 0, G: 0, B: 0)	 foreach y within 1 ... height, 	 		 x within 1 ... width; fill: RGB(2) * RGB -> RGB(2);fill(bitmap(2), color)[y, x] :=	color	foreach y within 1 ... size(bitmap),			x within 1 ... size(bitmap[y]); setColorAt: RGB(2) * int * int * RGB -> RGB(2);setColorAt(bitmap(2), x, y, color)[Y, X] :=		color when Y = y and X = x	else		bitmap[Y, X]; getColorAt: RGB(2) * int * int -> RGB;	getColorAt(bitmap(2), x, y) := bitmap[y, x];  lightGreen := (R: 51, G: 255, B: 51);lightRed := (R: 255, G: 51, B: 51); main(args(2)) :=	let		width := 1920;		height := 1200; 		cleanImage := newBitmap(width, height); 		filledGreen := fill(cleanImage, lightGreen); 		redCenter := setColorAt(filledGreen, width / 2, height / 2, lightRed);	in		getColorAt(redCenter, width / 2, height / 2);`
Output:
```cmd:> main.exe
(B:51,G:51,R:255)```

## Smalltalk

Works with: Smalltalk/X
`|img1 img2|"a depth24 RGB image"img1 := Image width:100 height:200 depth:24.img1 fillRectangle:(0@0 corner:100@100) with:Color red.img1 fillRectangle:(0@100 corner:100@100) with:(Color rgbValue: 16rFF00FF).img1 colorAt:(10 @ 10) put:(Color green).img1 saveOn:'sampleFile.png'. img1 displayOn:Transcript window graphicsContext.Transcript showCR:(img1 colorAt:(100 @ 10) ). "a depth8 palette image"img2 := Image width:100 height:200 depth:8.img2 colorMap:{ Color black. Color red . Color green }. img2 fillRectangle:(0@0 corner:100@100) with:Color red.img2 fillRectangle:(0@100 corner:100@100) with: 16r02.img2 colorAt:(10 @ 10) put:(Color green).img2 saveOn:'sampleFile.gif'. img2 displayOn:Transcript window graphicsContext.Transcript showCR:(img2 colorAt:(100 @ 10) ). `

## Tcl

Library: Tk
`package require Tcl 8.5package require Tknamespace path ::tcl::mathfunc ;# for [max] function proc newImage {width height} {    return [image create photo -width \$width -height \$height]}proc fill {image colour} {    \$image put \$colour -to 0 0 [\$image cget -width] [\$image cget -height]}proc setPixel {image colour point} {    lassign \$point x y    \$image put \$colour -to [max 0 \$x] [max 0 \$y]}proc getPixel {image point} {    lassign \$point x y    # [\$img get] returns a list: {r g b}; this proc should return a colour value    format {#%02x%02x%02x} {*}[\$image get \$x \$y]} # create the image and display itset img [newImage 150 150]label .l -image \$imgpack .l fill \$img red setPixel \$img green {40 40} set rbg [getPixel \$img {40 40}]`

## TI-89 BASIC

TI-89 BASIC does not have user-defined data structures. The Rosetta Code tasks which use this image type have instead been implemented using the TI-89's graph screen.

## UNIX Shell

Works with: ksh93
`typeset -T RGBColor_t=(    integer r g b    function to_s {        printf "%d %d %d" \${_.r} \${_.g} \${_.b}    }    function white   { print "255 255 255"; }    function black   { print "0 0 0"; }    function red     { print "255 0 0"; }    function green   { print "0 255 0"; }    function blue    { print "0 0 255"; }    function yellow  { print "255 255 0"; }    function magenta { print "255 0 255"; }    function cyan    { print "0 255 255"; }) typeset -T Bitmap_t=(    integer height    integer width    typeset -a data     function fill {        typeset color=\$1        if [[ -z \${color:+set} ]]; then            print -u2 "error: no fill color specified"            return 1        fi        integer x y        for ((y=0; y<_.height; y++)); do            for ((x=0; x<_.width; x++)); do                _.data[y][x]="\$color"            done        done    }     function setpixel {        integer x=\$1 y=\$2         typeset color=\$3        _.data[y][x]=\$color    }     function getpixel {        integer x=\$1 y=\$2         print "\${_.data[y][x]}"    }     function to_s {        typeset ppm=""        ppm+="P3"\$'\n'        ppm+="\${_.width} \${_.height}"\$'\n'        ppm+="255"\$'\n'        typeset sep        for ((y=0; y<_.height; y++)); do            sep=""            for ((x=0; x<_.width; x++)); do                ppm+="\$sep\${_.data[y][x]}"                sep=" "            done            ppm+=\$'\n'        done        print -- "\$ppm"    }) RGBColor_t colorBitmap_t b=( width=3  height=2 )b.fill "\$(color.white)"b.setpixel 0 0 "\$(color.red)"b.setpixel 1 0 "\$(color.green)"b.setpixel 2 0 "\$(color.blue)"b.setpixel 0 1 "\$(color.yellow)"b.setpixel 1 1 "\$(color.white)"b.setpixel 2 1 "\$(color.black)"echo "\$(b.getpixel 0 0)"b.to_s`
Output:
```255 0 0
P3
3 2
255
255 0 0 0 255 0 0 0 255
255 255 0 255 255 255 0 0 0```

## Vedit macro language

An edit buffer is used to store pixel data. In order to allow unlimited image size, a temporary file (here pixel.data) can be assosicated to the buffer. You could directly open the image file you are creating (as in the task Dragon_curve, but here we first create just the plain pixel data so that the required image file format can be decided later.

`#11 = 400		// Width of the image#12 = 300		// Height of the image // Create an empty RGB image and fill it with black color//File_Open("|(VEDIT_TEMP)\pixel.data", OVERWRITE+NOEVENT)BOFDel_Char(ALL)#10 = Buf_NumRepeat(#11 * #12) {    Ins_Char(0, COUNT, 3)} // Fill the image with dark blue color//#5 = 0				// Red#6 = 0				// Green#7 = 64				// BlueCall("FILL_IMAGE") // Draw one pixel in orange color//#1 = 100			// x#2 = 50				// y#5 = 255 #6 = 128 #7 = 0	// Orange colorCall("DRAW_PIXEL") // Get the color of a pixel//#1 = 10#2 = 3Call("GET_COLOR") Buf_Switch(#10) Buf_Quit(OK)Return /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////  Fill image with given color: #5 = Red, #6 = Green, #7 = Blue//:FILL_IMAGE:BOFRepeat (File_Size/3) {    IC(#5,OVERWRITE) IC(#6,OVERWRITE) IC(#7,OVERWRITE)}Return /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////  Daw a pixel. #1 = x, #2 = y//:DRAW_PIXEL:Goto_Pos((#1 + #2*#11)*3)IC(#5,OVERWRITE) IC(#6,OVERWRITE) IC(#7,OVERWRITE)Return /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////  Get color of a pixel. #1 = x, #2 = y//  Return: #5 = Red, #6 = Green, #7 = Blue//:GET_COLOR:Goto_Pos((#1 + #2*#11)*3)#5 = Cur_Char#6 = Cur_Char(1)#7 = Cur_Char(2)Return`

## Visual Basic .NET

`' The StructLayout attribute allows fields to overlap in memory.<System.Runtime.InteropServices.StructLayout(LayoutKind.Explicit)> _Public Structure Rgb     <FieldOffset(0)> _    Public Rgb As Integer     <FieldOffset(0)> _    Public B As Byte     <FieldOffset(1)> _    Public G As Byte     <FieldOffset(2)> _    Public R As Byte     Public Sub New(ByVal r As Byte, ByVal g As Byte, ByVal b As Byte)        Me.R = r        Me.G = g        Me.B = b    End Sub End Structure`
`Public Class RasterBitmap     Private m_pixels() As Rgb     Private m_width As Integer    Public ReadOnly Property Width As Integer        Get            Return m_width        End Get    End Property     Private m_height As Integer    Public ReadOnly Property Height As Integer        Get            Return m_height        End Get    End Property     Public Sub New(ByVal width As Integer, ByVal height As Integer)        m_pixels = New Rgb(width * height - 1) {}        m_width = width        m_height = height    End Sub     Public Sub Clear(ByVal color As Rgb)        For i As Integer = 0 To m_pixels.Length - 1            m_pixels(i) = color        Next    End Sub     Public Sub SetPixel(ByVal x As Integer, ByVal y As Integer, ByVal color As Rgb)        m_pixels((y * m_width) + x) = color    End Sub     Public Function GetPixel(ByVal x As Integer, ByVal y As Integer) As Rgb        Return m_pixels((y * m_width) + x)    End Function End Class`

## Wren

Library: DOME

The above library's ImageData class fits the bill here (version 1.3.0 or later).

`import "graphics" for Canvas, ImageData, Colorimport "dome" for Window class Game {    static bmpCreate(name, w, h) { ImageData.create(name, w, h) }     static bmpFill(name, col) {        var image = ImageData[name]        for (x in 0...image.width) {            for (y in 0...image.height) image.pset(x, y, col)        }    }     static bmpPset(name, x, y, col) { ImageData[name].pset(x, y, col) }     static bmpPget(name, x, y) { ImageData[name].pget(x, y) }     static init() {        Window.title = "Bitmap"        var size = 600        Window.resize(size, size)        Canvas.resize(size, size)        var bmp = bmpCreate("rcbmp", size/2, size/2)        bmpFill("rcbmp", Color.yellow)        bmpPset("rcbmp", size/4, size/4, Color.blue) // 'blue' is #29ADFF on the default palette        var col = bmpPget("rcbmp", size/4, size/4)        System.print(col.toString) // check it's blue - alpha component (FF) will also be shown        bmp.draw(150, 150)     }     static update() {}     static draw(alpha) {}}`
Output:
```Color (#29ADFFFF)
```

## Xojo

`Function CreatePicture(width As Integer, height As Integer) As Picture  Return New Picture(width, height)End Function Sub FillPicture(ByRef p As Picture, FillColor As Color)  p.Graphics.ForeColor = FillColor  p.Graphics.FillRect(0, 0, p.Width, p.Height)End Sub Function GetPixelColor(p As Picture, x As Integer, y As Integer) As Color  Return p.RGBSurface.Pixel(x, y)End Function Sub SetPixelColor(p As Picture, x As Integer, y As Integer, pColor As Color)  p.RGBSurface.Pixel(x, y) = pColorEnd Sub `

## XPL0

`include c:\cxpl\codes;  \include 'code' declarationsdef Width=180, Height=135, Color=\$123456;int X, Y;[SetVid(\$112);  \set display for 640x480 graphics in 24-bit RGB colorfor Y:= 0 to Height-1 do    \fill area with Color one pixel at a time    for X:= 0 to Width-1 do \(this takes 4.12 ms on a Duron 850)        Point(X, Y, Color);Move(60, 60); HexOut(6, ReadPix(0,0));  \show color of pixel at 0,0X:= ChIn(1);            \wait for keystrokeSetVid(3);              \restore display to normal text mode]`

## zkl

This solution creates a PPM image. No error checking or clipping.

`class PPM{	// (0,0) is logically bottom left   fcn init(width,height){      sz:=width*height*3;      var [const]          data=sz.pump(Data(sz),0),  // initialize to Black (RGB=000)	 w=width, h=height;   }   fcn fill(rgb){      sz:=data.len()/3;      data.clear(); sz.pump(data,T(Void,rgb.toBigEndian(3)));   }   fcn __sGet(x,y)    { data.toBigEndian(3*y*w + 3*x,3);        } //ppm[x,y]   fcn __sSet(rbg,x,y){	data[3*y*w + 3*x,3]=rbg.toBigEndian(3); } //ppm[x,y]=rgb   fcn write(out){   // write bottom to top to move (0,0) from bottom left to bottom left      out.write("P6\n#rosettacode PPM\n%d %d\n255\n".fmt(w,h));      [h-1..0, -1].pump(out,'wrap(h){ data.seek(3*h*w); data.read(3*w) });      out.close();   }}`
`ppm:=PPM(256,256);ppm.fill(0x00FF88);foreach x in ([50..200]){ ppm[x,50]=0xff|00|00; } // horizontal red line ppm.write(File("foo.ppm","wb"));`
Output:
```\$ zkl hexDump foo.ppm | less
0: 50 36 0a 23 72 6f 73 65 | 74 74 61 63 6f 64 65 20   P6.#rosettacode
16: 50 50 4d 0a 32 35 36 20 | 32 35 36 0a 32 35 35 0a   PPM.256 256.255.
32: 00 ff 88 00 ff 88 00 ff | 88 00 ff 88 00 ff 88 00   ................
48: ff 88 00 ff 88 00 ff 88 | 00 ff 88 00 ff 88 00 ff   ................
64: 88 00 ff 88 00 ff 88 00 | ff 88 00 ff 88 00 ff 88   ................
80: 00 ff 88 00 ff 88 00 ff | 88 00 ff 88 00 ff 88 00   ................
...
```