Matrix Digital Rain

From Rosetta Code
Matrix Digital Rain is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.

Implement the Matrix Digital Rain visual effect from the movie "The Matrix" as described in Wikipedia.

Provided is a reference implementation in Common Lisp to be run in a terminal.

Common Lisp[edit]

Works with: SBCL

Runs in the terminal (using the Ncurses C library and the croatoan Lisp wrapper).

 
(defun matrix-digital-rain ()
(with-screen (scr :input-echoing nil :input-blocking nil :cursor-visibility nil)
(let* ((width (.width scr))
(height (.height scr))
;; start at a random height in each column.
(positions (loop repeat width collect (random height)))
;; run each column at a random speed.
(speeds (loop repeat width collect (random 4))))
;; hit the q key to exit the main loop.
(add-event-handler (scr #\q) 'exit-event-loop)
(add-event-handler (scr nil)
(lambda (win event)
;; generate a random ascii char
(flet ((randch () (+ 64 (random 58))))
(loop for col from 0 to (1- width) do
(loop repeat (nth col speeds) do
;; position of the first point in the current column
(let ((pos (nth col positions)))
(setf (.attributes win) '(:bold))
(setf (.color-pair win) '(:white :black))
(add win (randch) :y (mod pos height) :x col)
(setf (.color-pair win) '(:green :black))
(add win (randch) :y (mod (- pos 1) height) :x col)
(add win (randch) :y (mod (- pos 2) height) :x col)
(setf (.attributes win) '())
(add win (randch) :y (mod (- pos 3) height) :x col)
;; overwrite the last char half the height from the first char.
(add win #\space :y (mod (- pos (floor height 2)) height) :x col)
(refresh win)
;; advance the current column
(setf (nth col positions) (mod (+ pos 1) height))))))))
(setf (.frame-rate scr) 20)
(run-event-loop scr))))
 
Sample output:

https://i.imgur.com/17b36O3.png

Go[edit]

Library: goncurses

This is a translation of the C code here which uses the ncurses library.

Rather than pressing Ctrl+C to stop the program, I've added code so that it stops automatically after 1 minute and restores the terminal to its original state.

package main
 
import (
gc "github.com/rthornton128/goncurses"
"log"
"math/rand"
"time"
)
 
// Time between row updates in microseconds.
// Controls the speed of the digital rain effect.
const rowDelay = 40000
 
func main() {
start := time.Now()
rand.Seed(time.Now().UnixNano())
 
// Characters to randomly appear in the rain sequence.
chars := []byte("0123456789")
totalChars := len(chars)
 
// Set up ncurses screen and colors.
stdscr, err := gc.Init()
if err != nil {
log.Fatal("init", err)
}
defer gc.End()
 
gc.Echo(false)
gc.Cursor(0)
 
if !gc.HasColors() {
log.Fatal("Program requires a colour capable terminal")
}
 
if err := gc.StartColor(); err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}
 
if err := gc.InitPair(1, gc.C_GREEN, gc.C_BLACK); err != nil {
log.Fatal("InitPair failed: ", err)
}
stdscr.ColorOn(1)
maxY, maxX := stdscr.MaxYX()
 
/* Create slices of columns based on screen width. */
 
// Slice containing the current row of each column.
columnsRow := make([]int, maxX)
 
// Slice containing the active status of each column.
// A column draws characters on a row when active.
columnsActive := make([]int, maxX)
 
// Set top row as current row for all columns.
for i := 0; i < maxX; i++ {
columnsRow[i] = -1
columnsActive[i] = 0
}
 
for {
for i := 0; i < maxX; i++ {
if columnsRow[i] == -1 {
// If a column is at the top row, pick a
// random starting row and active status.
columnsRow[i] = rand.Intn(maxY + 1)
columnsActive[i] = rand.Intn(2)
}
}
 
// Loop through columns and draw characters on rows.
for i := 0; i < maxX; i++ {
if columnsActive[i] == 1 {
// Draw a random character at this column's current row.
charIndex := rand.Intn(totalChars)
stdscr.MovePrintf(columnsRow[i], i, "%c", chars[charIndex])
} else {
// Draw an empty character if the column is inactive.
stdscr.MovePrintf(columnsRow[i], i, "%c", ' ')
}
 
columnsRow[i]++
 
// When a column reaches the bottom row, reset to top.
if columnsRow[i] >= maxY {
columnsRow[i] = -1
}
 
// Randomly alternate the column's active status.
if rand.Intn(1001) == 0 {
if columnsActive[i] == 0 {
columnsActive[i] = 1
} else {
columnsActive[i] = 0
}
}
}
time.Sleep(rowDelay * time.Microsecond)
stdscr.Refresh()
elapsed := time.Since(start)
// Stop after 1 minute.
if elapsed.Minutes() >= 1 {
break
}
}
}

Perl[edit]

Probably shouldn't, but until someone posts something better... here's something somewhat relevant I wrote back in 2006.

Follow the bouncing Neo!

#!/user/bin/perl
 
use strict;
use warnings;
use Tk;
 
my $delay = 50; # milliseconds
my $fade = 8; # number of characters to "fade"
my $base_color = '#004000'; # dark green
my $fontname = 'Times'; # Whatever
my $fontsize = 12; # point size
my $font = "{$fontname} $fontsize bold";
my @objects;
 
my ( $xv, $yv ) = ( 0, 0 );
 
my $top = MainWindow->new();
 
$top->geometry('800x600');
 
my $run = 1;
 
$top->protocol( 'WM_DELETE_WINDOW' => sub { $run = 0; } );
 
my @letters = ( 'A' .. 'Z', 'a' .. 'z', '0' .. '9' );
 
my $canvas = $top->Canvas(
-background => 'black'
)->pack(
-fill => 'both',
-expand => 'y'
);
 
my $testch = $canvas->createText(
100, 100,
-text => 'o',
-fill => 'black',
-font => $font
);
 
$top->update;
 
my @coords = $canvas->bbox($testch);
 
$canvas->delete($testch);
 
my $lwidth = $coords[2] - $coords[0];
my $lheight = ( $coords[3] - $coords[1] ) * .8;
my $cols = int $canvas->width / $lwidth;
my $rows = int $canvas->height / $lheight;
 
for my $y ( 0 .. $rows ) {
for my $x ( 0 .. $cols ) {
$objects[$x][$y] = $canvas->createText(
$x * $lwidth, $y * $lheight,
-text => $letters[ int rand @letters ],
-fill => $base_color,
-font => $font
);
}
}
 
my $neo_image = $top->Photo( -data => neo() );
 
my $neo = $canvas->createImage(
$canvas->width / 2,
$canvas->height / 2,
-image => $neo_image
);
 
while ($run) {
drop('Nothing Like The Matrix');
}
exit;
 
MainLoop;
 
sub drop {
my @phrase = split //, reverse shift;
my $x = int rand $cols;
my @orig;
for my $y ( 0 .. $rows ) {
$orig[$y] = $canvas->itemcget( $objects[$x][$y], '-text' );
}
for my $y ( 0 .. $rows + @phrase + $fade ) {
for my $letter ( 0 .. @phrase ) {
last if ( $y - $letter < 0 );
$canvas->itemconfigure(
$objects[$x][ $y - $letter ],
-text => $phrase[$letter],
-fill => "#00FF00"
);
}
if ( $y > @phrase ) {
$canvas->itemconfigure(
$objects[$x][ $y - @phrase ],
-text => $orig[ $y - @phrase ],
-fill => "#009000"
);
}
if ( $y > @phrase + 2 ) {
$canvas->itemconfigure( $objects[$x][ $y - @phrase - int ($fade / 2) ],
-fill => "#006000" );
$canvas->itemconfigure( $objects[$x][ $y - @phrase - $fade + 1 ],
-fill => $base_color );
}
last unless $run;
$top->after($delay);
neo_move();
$top->update;
}
}
 
sub neo_move {
$xv += ( ( rand 2 ) - 1 > 0 ) ? 1 : -1;
$yv += ( ( rand 2 ) - 1 > 0 ) ? 1 : -1;
my ( $x, $y ) = $canvas->coords($neo);
$xv = -$xv if ( ( $x < 0 ) or ( $x > $canvas->width ) );
$yv = -$yv if ( ( $y < 0 ) or ( $y > $canvas->height ) );
$canvas->move( $neo, $xv, $yv );
}
 
sub neo {
return '
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'
;
}
 

Perl 6[edit]

Works with: Rakudo version 2018.11

Kind-of cheap and cheesy, but what the heck... Probably will only work in a POSIX compatible terminal. Runs until you hit ^C to exit.

The "lightning" effect is actually a bug, but I liked it so I kept it.

# clean up on exit, reset ANSI codes, scroll, re-show the cursor & clear screen
signal(SIGINT).tap: { print "\e[0m", "\n" xx 50, "\e[H\e[J\e[?25h"; exit(0) }
 
# a list of glyphs to use
my @codes = flat 'Α' .. 'Π', 'Ѐ' .. 'ѵ', 'Ҋ' .. 'ԯ', 'Ϣ' .. 'ϯ', 'ヲ'.. 'ン',
'Ⲁ' .. '⳩', '∀' .. '∗', '℀' .. '℺', '⨀' .. '⫿';
 
# palette of gradient ANSI foreground colors
my @palette = flat "\e[38;2;255;255;255m", (255,24530).map({"\e[38;2;0;$_;0m"}),
"\e[38;2;0;25;0m" xx 75;
 
my @screen; # buffer to hold glyphs
my @rotate; # palette rotation position buffer
 
my ($rows, $cols) = qx/stty size/.words; # get the terminal size
init($rows, $cols); # set up the screen buffer and palette offsets
 
my $size-check;
 
print "\e[?25l\e[48;5;232m"; # hide the cursor, set the background color
 
loop {
if ++$size-check %% 20 { # periodically check for
my ($r, $c) = qx/stty size/.words; # resized terminal and
init($r, $c) if $r != $rows or $c != $cols; # re-initialize screen buffer
$size-check = 0
}
print "\e[1;1H"; # set cursor to top left
print join '', (^@screen).map: {
@rotate[$_] = (@rotate[$_] + 1) % +@palette; # rotate the palettes
flat @palette[@rotate[$_]], @screen[$_] # and print foreground, glyph
}
@screen[(^@screen).pick] = @codes.roll for ^30; # replace some random glyphs
}
 
sub init ($r, $c) {
@screen = @codes.roll($r * $c);
($rows, $cols) = $r, $c;
my @offset = (^@palette).pick xx $cols;
for ^$rows -> $row {
@rotate[$row * $cols ..^ $row * $cols + $cols] = @offset;
# for no "lightning" effect, add '1 + ' ↓ here: (1 + $_ % 3)
@offset = (^@offset).map: {(@offset[$_] - ($_ % 3)) % +@palette};
}
}
Sample output:

See matrix-digital-rain-perl6.png (offsite png image)

Racket[edit]

Translation of: Perl 6
#lang racket
 
(define codes '((Α Π) (Ѐ ѵ) (Ҋ ԯ) (Ϣ ϯ) (ヲ ン) (Ⲁ ⳩) (∀ ∗) (℀ ℺) (⨀ ⫿)))
 
(define (symbol->integer s) (char->integer (string-ref (symbol->string s) 0)))
(define (pick xs) (list-ref xs (random (length xs))))
 
(define glyphs
(map
integer->char
(append*
(for/list ([c (in-list codes)])
(range (symbol->integer (first c)) (add1 (symbol->integer (second c))))))))
 
(define palette (vector-append (vector "\e[38;2;255;255;255m")
(for/vector ([n (in-range 245 29 -10)])
(format "\e[38;2;0;~a;0m" n))
(make-vector 75 "\e[38;2;0;25;0m")))
 
(match-define (list (app (compose1 sub1 string->number) rows)
(app string->number cols))
(string-split (with-output-to-string (thunk (system "stty size")))))
 
(define screen (for/vector ([_ (in-range (* rows cols))]) (pick glyphs)))
(define offsets (for/vector ([col cols]) (random (vector-length palette))))
 
(display "\e[?25l\e[48;5;232m") ; hide the cursor, set the background color
 
(define (main)
(for ([iter (in-naturals)])
(sleep 0.1)
(display "\e[1;1H") ; reset cursor to top left
(for ([i (in-range 30)]) (vector-set! screen (random (* rows cols)) (pick glyphs)))
(for ([i (in-range rows)])
(for ([j (in-range cols)])
(display (vector-ref palette (modulo (+ (- i) iter (vector-ref offsets j))
(vector-length palette))))
(display (vector-ref screen (+ (* cols i) j))))
(display "\n"))))
 
(with-handlers ([exn:break? (thunk*
 ; reset ANSI codes, reshow cursor, clear screen
(display "\e[0m")
(display "\e[H\e[J\e[?25h"))])
(main))

zkl[edit]

Translation of: Perl6
var [const] codes=Walker.chain(  // a bunch of UTF non ascii chars
[0x0391..0x03a0], [0x03a3..0x0475], [0x0400..0x0475],
[0x048a..0x052f], [0x03e2..0x03ef], [0x2c80..0x2ce9],
[0x2200..0x2217], [0x2100..0x213a], [0x2a00..0x2aff])
.apply(fcn(utf){ utf.toString(-8) }), // jeez this is lame
codeSz=codes.len(), // 970
c=L("\e[38;2;255;255;255m",[255..30,-15].apply("\e[38;2;0;%d;0m".fmt),
(250).pump(List,T(Void,"\e[38;2;0;25;0m"))).flatten(),
csz=c.len(); // 267, c is ANSI escape code fg colors: 38;2;<r;g;b>m
 
// query the ANSI terminal
rows,cols := System.popen("stty size","r").readln().split().apply("toInt");
 
o,s,fg := buildScreen(rows,cols);
ssz:=s.len();
 
print("\e[?25l\e[48;5;232m"); // hide the cursor, set background color to dark
while(1){ // ignore screen resizes
print("\e[1;1H"); // move cursor to 1,1
foreach n in (ssz){ // print a screen full
print( c[fg[n]], s[n] ); // forground color, character
fg[n]=(fg[n] + 1)%csz; // fade to black
}
do(100){ s[(0).random(ssz)]=codes[(0).random(codeSz)] } // some new chars
Atomic.sleep(0.1); // frame rate for my system, up to 200x41 terminal
}
 
fcn buildScreen(rows,cols){ // build a row major array as list
// s --> screen full of characters
s:=(rows*cols).pump(List(), fcn{ codes[(0).random(codeSz)]});
// array fb-->( fg color, fg ..) where fg is an ANSI term 48;5;<n>m color
fg:=List.createLong(s.len(),0);
o:=csz.pump(List()).shuffle()[0,cols]; // cols random #s
foreach row in (rows){ // set fg indices
foreach col in (cols){ fg[row*cols + col] = o[col] }
o=o.apply(fcn(n){ n-=1; if(n<0) n=csz-1; n%csz }); // fade out
}
return(o,s,fg);
}

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