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HTTPS/Client-authenticated

From Rosetta Code
Task
HTTPS/Client-authenticated
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Demonstrate how to connect to a web server over HTTPS where that server requires that the client present a certificate to prove who (s)he is. Unlike with the HTTPS request with authentication task, it is not acceptable to perform the authentication by a username/password or a set cookie.

This task is in general useful for use with webservice clients as it offers a high level of assurance that the client is an acceptable counterparty for the server. For example, Amazon Web Services uses this style of authentication.

C#[edit]

Works with: C sharp version 3.0
 
using System;
using System.Net;
 
class Program
{
class MyWebClient : WebClient
{
protected override WebRequest GetWebRequest(Uri address)
{
HttpWebRequest request = (HttpWebRequest)base.GetWebRequest(address);
request.ClientCertificates.Add(new X509Certificate());
return request;
}
}
static void Main(string[] args)
{
var client = new MyWebClient();
 
var data = client.DownloadString("https://example.com");
 
Console.WriteLine(data);
}
}
 

Go[edit]

package main
 
import (
"crypto/tls"
"io/ioutil"
"log"
"net/http"
)
 
func main() {
 
// load key pair
cert, err := tls.LoadX509KeyPair(
"./client.local.tld/client.local.tld.crt",
"./client.local.tld/client.local.tld.key",
)
 
if err != nil {
log.Fatal("Error while loading x509 key pair", err)
}
 
// Create TLS Config in order to had client certificate
tlsConfig := &tls.Config{Certificates: []tls.Certificate{cert}}
 
tlsConfig.BuildNameToCertificate()
transport := &http.Transport{TLSClientConfig: tlsConfig}
 
// create http client with our custom transport with TLS config
client := &http.Client{Transport: transport}
 
res, err := client.Get("https://www.example.com/")
if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}
contents, err := ioutil.ReadAll(res.Body)
log.Print(string(contents))
 
}
 

Julia[edit]

using HTTP, MbedTLS
 
conf = MbedTLS.SSLConfig(true, log_secrets="/utl/secret_key_log.log")
resp = HTTP.get("https://httpbin.org/ip", sslconfig=conf)
 
println(resp)
 
Output:

HTTP.Messages.Response: """ HTTP/1.1 200 OK Connection: keep-alive Server: gunicorn/19.9.0 Date: Wed, 28 Nov 2018 08:42:25 GMT Content-Type: application/json Content-Length: 30 Access-Control-Allow-Origin: * Access-Control-Allow-Credentials: true Via: 1.1 vegur

{

 "origin": "104.28.10.103"

} """

Kotlin[edit]

// version 1.2.0
 
import java.security.KeyStore
import javax.net.ssl.KeyManagerFactory
import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext
import javax.net.ssl.HttpsURLConnection
import java.net.URL
import java.io.FileInputStream
import java.io.InputStreamReader
import java.io.BufferedReader
 
fun getSSLContext(p12Path: String, password: String): SSLContext {
val ks = KeyStore.getInstance("pkcs12")
val fis = FileInputStream(p12Path)
val pwd = password.toCharArray()
ks.load(fis, pwd)
val kmf = KeyManagerFactory.getInstance("PKIX")
kmf.init(ks, pwd)
val sc = SSLContext.getInstance("TLS")
sc.init(kmf.keyManagers, null, null)
return sc
}
 
fun main(args: Array<String>) {
// The .p12 file contains the client certificate and private key
val sc = getSSLContext("whatever.p12", "password")
val url = URL("https://somehost.com")
val con = url.openConnection() as HttpsURLConnection
con.sslSocketFactory = sc.socketFactory
val isr = InputStreamReader(con.inputStream)
val br = BufferedReader(isr)
while (true) {
val line = br.readLine()
if (line == null) break
println(line)
}
}

Lasso[edit]

local(sslcert = file('myCert.pem'))
local(x = curl('https://sourceforge.net'))
#x->set(CURLOPT_SSLCERT, #sslcert->readstring)
#sslcert->close
#x->result->asString

Mathematica / Wolfram Language[edit]

a = RunThrough["curl -E myCert.pem https://www.example.com", 1]
For[ i=0, i < Length[a] , i++, SomeFunction[a]]

Nim[edit]

import httpclient, net
var client = newHttpClient(sslContext = newContext(certFile = "mycert.pem"))
var r = client.get("https://www.example.com")

Perl[edit]

#!/usr/bin/env perl -T
use 5.018_002;
use warnings;
use LWP;
 
our $VERSION = 1.000_000;
 
my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new(
ssl_opts => {
SSL_cert_file => 'certificate.pem',
SSL_key_file => 'key.pem',
verify_hostname => 1,
}
);
my $req = HTTP::Request->new( GET => 'https://www.example.com' );
my $res = $ua->request($req);
if ( $res->is_success ) {
say $res->content;
}
else {
say $res->status_line;
}

Phix[edit]

Library: Phix/libcurl

Exactly the same as the HTTP#Phix task, except for the CURLOPT_SSLCERT part.

without js
include builtins\libcurl.e
curl_global_init()
atom curl = curl_easy_init()
curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_URL, "https://sourceforge.net")
integer fn = open("myCert.pem","r")
curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_SSLCERT, get_text(fn))
close(fn)
object res = curl_easy_perform_ex(curl)
curl_easy_cleanup(curl)
curl_global_cleanup()
 
puts(1,res)

PicoLisp[edit]

(in '(curl "-E" "myCert.pem" "https://www.example.com")
(while (line)
(doSomeProcessingWithLine @) ) )

Python[edit]

import httplib
 
connection = httplib.HTTPSConnection('www.example.com',cert_file='myCert.PEM')
connection.request('GET','/index.html')
response = connection.getresponse()
data = response.read()
 

Racket[edit]

Skeleton code to connect to a server:

 
#lang racket
(require openssl/mzssl)
(define ctx (ssl-make-client-context))
(ssl-set-verify! ctx #t) ; verify the connection
(ssl-load-verify-root-certificates! ctx "my-cert.pem")
(define-values [I O] (ssl-connect "www.example.com" 443 ctx))
 

Raku[edit]

(formerly Perl 6)

 
# cert creation commands
 
# openssl req -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout my_key.pem -out my_csr.pem -nodes -subj "/CN=ME"
 
# openssl x509 -req -in my_csr.pem -signkey my_key.pem -out my_cert.pem
 
use v6;
use OpenSSL;
 
my $host = "github.com";
 
my $ssl = OpenSSL.new(:client);
 
$ssl.use-certificate-file("./my_cert.pem");
$ssl.use-privatekey-file("./my_key.pem");
$ssl.check-private-key;
 
 
my $s = IO::Socket::INET.new(:$host, :port(443));
 
$ssl.set-socket($s);
$ssl.set-connect-state;
$ssl.connect;
$ssl.write("GET / HTTP/1.1\r\n\r\n");
say $ssl.read(1024);
$ssl.close;
$s.close;
 
 

Ruby[edit]

require 'uri'
require 'net/http'
 
uri = URI.parse('https://www.example.com')
pem = File.read("/path/to/my.pem")
cert = OpenSSL::X509::Certificate.new(pem)
key = OpenSSL::PKey::RSA.new(pem)
response = Net::HTTP.start(uri.host, uri.port, use_ssl: true,
cert: cert, key: key) do |http|
request = Net::HTTP::Get.new uri
http.request request
end

Rust[edit]

Works with: Rust version 2021

This implementation uses reqwest, the de facto standard high-level HTTP(S) rust library. It is roughly equivalent in purpose and functionality to Python's requests.

Cargo.toml dependencies[edit]

The blocking variant of the reqwest library is used here for simplicity's sake. An asynchronous API is also available.

Native (system) TLS libraries are used instead of Rustls, the Rust TLS implementation, because we use a PKCS#12 certificate which at the time of writing does not seem to be available on Rustls. A PKCS#12 certificate is used instead of its PEM equivalent because reading password-protected PEM files does not seem to be available either.

reqwest = {version = "0.11", features = ["native-tls", "blocking"]}

src/main.rs[edit]

use std::fs::File;
use std::io::Read;
 
use reqwest::blocking::Client;
use reqwest::Identity;
 
fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
let identity = {
let mut buf = Vec::new();
 
// Downloaded from https://badssl.com/certs/badssl.com-client.p12
File::open("badssl.com-client.p12")?.read_to_end(&mut buf)?;
 
// Password is badssl.com
Identity::from_pkcs12_der(&buf, "badssl.com").unwrap()
};
 
let client = Client::builder().identity(identity).build().unwrap();
let response = client.get("https://client.badssl.com/").send().unwrap();
 
if !response.status().is_success() {
eprintln!("HTTP error requesting URL: {}", response.status());
}
 
println!("Got response from server: {}", response.text().unwrap());
 
Ok(())
}

Scala[edit]

import java.io.FileInputStream
import java.net.URL
import java.security.KeyStore
 
import javax.net.ssl.{HttpsURLConnection, KeyManagerFactory, SSLContext}
 
import scala.io.BufferedSource
 
object ClientAuthenticated extends App {
 
val con: HttpsURLConnection =
new URL("https://somehost.com").openConnection().asInstanceOf[HttpsURLConnection]
 
def getSSLContext(p12Path: String, password: String): SSLContext = {
val ks = KeyStore.getInstance("pkcs12")
val pwd = password.toCharArray
ks.load(new FileInputStream(p12Path), pwd)
val kmf = KeyManagerFactory.getInstance("PKIX")
kmf.init(ks, pwd)
val sc = SSLContext.getInstance("TLS")
sc.init(kmf.getKeyManagers, null, null)
sc
}
 
// The .p12 file contains the client certificate and private key
HttpsURLConnection.setDefaultSSLSocketFactory(getSSLContext("whatever.p12", "password").getSocketFactory)
new BufferedSource(con.getInputStream).getLines.foreach(println(_))
 
}

Tcl[edit]

Uses the Tls package.

package require http
package require tls
 
set cert myCert.p12
http::register https 443 [list \
 ::tls::socket -certfile $cert -password getPass]
proc getPass {} {
return "myPassword"; # Just a noddy example...
}
 
# Make a secure authenticated connection
set token [http::geturl https://verysecure.example.com/]
 
# Now as for conventional use of the “http” package
set data [http::data $token]
http::cleanup $token

Wren[edit]

Library: libcurl

An embedded program so we can ask the C host to communicate with libcurl for us.

/* https_client-authenticated.wren */
 
var CURLOPT_URL = 10002
var CURLOPT_SSLCERT = 10025
var CURLOPT_SSLKEY = 10087
var CURLOPT_KEYPASSWD = 10258
 
foreign class Curl {
construct easyInit() {}
 
foreign easySetOpt(opt, param)
 
foreign easyPerform()
 
foreign easyCleanup()
}
 
var curl = Curl.easyInit()
if (curl == 0) {
System.print("Error initializing cURL.")
return
}
 
curl.easySetOpt(CURLOPT_URL, "https://example.com/")
curl.easySetOpt(CURLOPT_SSLCERT, "cert.pem")
curl.easySetOpt(CURLOPT_SSLKEY, "key.pem")
curl.easySetOpt(CURLOPT_KEYPASSWD, "s3cret")
 
var status = curl.easyPerform()
if (status != 0) {
System.print("Failed to perform task.")
return
}
curl.easyCleanup()


We now embed this in the following C program, compile and run it.

/* gcc https_client-authenticated.c -o https_client-authenticated -lcurl -lwren -lm  */
 
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <curl/curl.h>
#include "wren.h"
 
/* C <=> Wren interface functions */
 
void C_curlAllocate(WrenVM* vm) {
CURL** pcurl = (CURL**)wrenSetSlotNewForeign(vm, 0, 0, sizeof(CURL*));
*pcurl = curl_easy_init();
}
 
void C_easyPerform(WrenVM* vm) {
CURL* curl = *(CURL**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
CURLcode cc = curl_easy_perform(curl);
wrenSetSlotDouble(vm, 0, (double)cc);
}
 
void C_easyCleanup(WrenVM* vm) {
CURL* curl = *(CURL**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
curl_easy_cleanup(curl);
}
 
void C_easySetOpt(WrenVM* vm) {
CURL* curl = *(CURL**)wrenGetSlotForeign(vm, 0);
CURLoption opt = (CURLoption)wrenGetSlotDouble(vm, 1);
const char *arg = wrenGetSlotString(vm, 2);
curl_easy_setopt(curl, opt, arg);
}
 
WrenForeignClassMethods bindForeignClass(WrenVM* vm, const char* module, const char* className) {
WrenForeignClassMethods methods;
methods.allocate = NULL;
methods.finalize = NULL;
if (strcmp(module, "main") == 0) {
if (strcmp(className, "Curl") == 0) {
methods.allocate = C_curlAllocate;
}
}
return methods;
}
 
WrenForeignMethodFn bindForeignMethod(
WrenVM* vm,
const char* module,
const char* className,
bool isStatic,
const char* signature) {
if (strcmp(module, "main") == 0) {
if (strcmp(className, "Curl") == 0) {
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "easySetOpt(_,_)") == 0) return C_easySetOpt;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "easyPerform()") == 0) return C_easyPerform;
if (!isStatic && strcmp(signature, "easyCleanup()") == 0) return C_easyCleanup;
}
}
return NULL;
}
 
static void writeFn(WrenVM* vm, const char* text) {
printf("%s", text);
}
 
void errorFn(WrenVM* vm, WrenErrorType errorType, const char* module, const int line, const char* msg) {
switch (errorType) {
case WREN_ERROR_COMPILE:
printf("[%s line %d] [Error] %s\n", module, line, msg);
break;
case WREN_ERROR_STACK_TRACE:
printf("[%s line %d] in %s\n", module, line, msg);
break;
case WREN_ERROR_RUNTIME:
printf("[Runtime Error] %s\n", msg);
break;
}
}
 
char *readFile(const char *fileName) {
FILE *f = fopen(fileName, "r");
fseek(f, 0, SEEK_END);
long fsize = ftell(f);
rewind(f);
char *script = malloc(fsize + 1);
fread(script, 1, fsize, f);
fclose(f);
script[fsize] = 0;
return script;
}
 
int main(int argc, char **argv) {
WrenConfiguration config;
wrenInitConfiguration(&config);
config.writeFn = &writeFn;
config.errorFn = &errorFn;
config.bindForeignClassFn = &bindForeignClass;
config.bindForeignMethodFn = &bindForeignMethod;
WrenVM* vm = wrenNewVM(&config);
const char* module = "main";
const char* fileName = "https_client-authenticated.wren";
char *script = readFile(fileName);
WrenInterpretResult result = wrenInterpret(vm, module, script);
switch (result) {
case WREN_RESULT_COMPILE_ERROR:
printf("Compile Error!\n");
break;
case WREN_RESULT_RUNTIME_ERROR:
printf("Runtime Error!\n");
break;
case WREN_RESULT_SUCCESS:
break;
}
wrenFreeVM(vm);
free(script);
return 0;
}

zkl[edit]

Uses libCurl.

var CURL=Import("zklCurl"), c=CURL();
c.setOpt("SSLCERT","certFile.pem"); c.setOpt("SSLCERTTYPE","pem");
c.get("http://zenkinetic.com"); // lame example to show how to read