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Category talk:Wren-long

From Rosetta Code

64-bit integer arithmetic[edit]

Many tasks on RC require the use of large numbers (usually integers).

Wren is unable to deal natively and precisely with integers outside a 53-bit range and so either has to limit such tasks to integers which it can deal with or use the BigInt class in the Wren-big module which can deal with integers of arbitrary size.

However, some tasks on RC only require integers within the 64-bit range and BigInt feels like overkill for such tasks.

This module aims to remedy that situation by providing a ULong class for 64-bit unsigned arithmetic which is easy to use. Internally, a 64-bit unsigned integer is represented by two unsigned 32-bit integral Nums, a low and a high part, though this is generally invisible to the user.

A Long class for signed 64-bit arithmetic may be added later.

The design of ULong follows closely that of the BigInt class though the implementation is generally much simpler and hopefully more performant for numbers within its range.

The ULong.new constructor accepts either a string or an unsigned safe integer (i.e. within the normal 53-bit limitation). I couldn't see much point in accepting larger numbers (or floats) as this would inevitably mean that the ULong object would be imprecise from the outset. It is an error to pass a value which is out of range. Passing an empty string will also produce an error (rather than a zero object) as it's just as easy to pass 0 and an empty string may well be a mistake in any case.

It's also possible to create a ULong directly from a pair of unsigned 32-bit integers, low and high, or from a little-endian list of 8 bytes using the fromPair or fromBytes constructors respectively.

If you need to generate a ULong from a string in a non-decimal base or from another ULong, you can use the fromBaseString method for any base, fromHexString for base 16 or copy methods respectively. However, the first two - unlike the new constructor - simply 'wrap around' out of range values (even for bases 10 or 16) as doing anything else was felt to be too expensive.

Similarly and where appropriate, all operations on ULongs 'wrap around' out of range results not just because of the expense of doing anything else but also because this is often more convenient than throwing errors.

Compared to BigInt, most operations are relatively trivial to implement the exceptions being multiplication and division/remainder.

Where the operands are small enough, I've simply used Num multiplication or division.

However, in the case of multiplication of larger numbers, one can't just multiply all the 32-bit portions and add them together because of the 53-bit limitation. What I've done instead, is to split them into 16-bit portions to do the multiplication and then combined the results using bit arithmetic.

The most obvious way to perform division of larger numbers is to first obtain an estimate of the result by treating them as Nums and then refine this result iteratively until the exact result is obtained. However, this is easier said than done because the accuracy of the initial estimate will depend on the magnitude of the numbers and one has to guard against overflow when performing the iterations. Consequently, this is quite a slow operation.

Source code[edit]

/* Module "long.wren" */
 
import "/trait" for Comparable
 
/*
ULong represents a 64-bit unsigned integer together with arithmetic operations thereon.
ULong objects are stored as two non-negative integers < 2^32 and are immutable.
*/

class ULong is Comparable {
// Constants
static zero { lohi_( 0, 0) }
static one { lohi_( 1, 0) }
static two { lohi_( 2, 0) }
static three { lohi_( 3, 0) }
static four { lohi_( 4, 0) }
static five { lohi_( 5, 0) }
static ten { lohi_(10, 0) }
 
// Returns the maximum 'short' ULong = 2^32-1 = 4294967295
static maxShort { lohi_(4294967295, 0) }
 
// Returns the maximum 'small' ULong = 2^53-1 = 9007199254740991
static maxSmall { lohi_(4294967295, 2097151) }
 
// Returns the largest ULong = 2^64-1 = 18446744073709551615
static largest { lohi_(4294967295, 4294967295) }
 
// Returns the smallest ULong = 0
static smallest { lohi_(0, 0) }
 
// Private method to determine whether a number is a short unsigned integer or not.
static isShort_(n) { (n is Num) && n.isInteger && n >= 0 && n <= 4294967295 }
 
// Private method to determine whether a number is a small unsigned integer or not.
static isSmall_(n) { (n is Num) && n.isInteger && n >= 0 && n <= 9007199254740991 }
 
// Private method to calculate the base 2 logarithm of a number.
static log2_(n) { n.log / 0.69314718055994530942 }
 
// Private helper function to convert a string to lower case.
static lower_(s) { s.codePoints.map { |c|
return String.fromCodePoint((c >= 65 && c <= 90) ? c + 32 : c)
}.join() }
 
 
// Private helper method to convert a lower case base string to a small integer.
static atoi_(s, base, digits) {
var res = 0
for (d in s) {
var ix = digits.indexOf(d)
res = res * base + ix
}
return res
}
 
// Private helper method to convert a small integer to a string with a base between 2 and 36.
static itoa_(n, base, digits) {
if (n == 0) return "0"
var res = ""
while (n > 0) {
res = res + "%(digits[n%base])"
n = (n/base).floor
}
return res[-1..0]
}
 
// Private helper method to check whether a 20 digit string exceeds the largest value string.
static exceedsMaxString_(s) {
var m = "18446744073709551615"
if (s == m) return false
var mb = m.bytes
var sb = s.bytes
for (i in 0..19) {
if (mb[i] < sb[i]) return true
if (mb[i] > sb[i]) return false
}
}
 
// Returns the greater of two ULongs.
static max(a, b) {
if (!(a is ULong)) a = new(a)
if (!(b is ULong)) b = new(b)
return (a > b) ? a : b
}
 
// Returns the lesser of two ULongs.
static min(a, b) {
if (!(a is ULong)) a = new(a)
if (!(b is ULong)) b = new(b)
return (a < b) ? a : b
}
 
// Returns the greatest common divisor of a and b.
static gcd(a, b) {
if (!(a is ULong)) a = new(a)
if (!(b is ULong)) b = new(b)
while (!b.isZero) {
var t = b
b = a % b
a = t
}
return a
}
 
// Returns the least common multiple of a and b.
static lcm(a, b) {
if (!(a is ULong)) a = new(a)
if (!(b is ULong)) b = new(b)
return a / gcd(a, b) * b
}
 
// Returns the factorial of 'n'. Can only be used for n <= 20
static factorial(n) {
if (!(((n is Num) || (n is ULong)) && n >= 0 && n <= 20)) {
Fiber.abort("Argument must be a non-negative integer no larger than 20.")
}
if (n < 2) return one
var fact = one
var i = two
while (i <= n) {
fact = fact * i
i = i + 1
}
return fact
}
 
// Returns whether or not 'n' is an instance of ULong.
static isInstance(n) { n is ULong }
 
// Private method to determine if a ULong is a basic prime or not.
static isBasicPrime_(n) {
if (!(n is ULong)) n = new(n)
if (n.isOne) return false
if (n == two || n == three || n == five) return true
if (n.isEven || n.isDivisibleBy(three) || n.isDivisibleBy(five)) return false
if (n < 49) return true
return null // unknown if prime or not
}
 
// Private method to apply the Miller-Rabin test.
static millerRabinTest_(n, a) {
var nPrev = n.dec
var b = nPrev
var r = 0
while (b.isEven) {
b = b >> 1
r = r + 1
}
for (i in 0...a.count) {
if (n >= a[i]) {
var x = (a[i] is ULong) ? a[i] : new(a[i])
x = x.modPow(b, n)
if (!x.isOne && x != nPrev) {
var d = r - 1
var next = false
while (d != 0) {
x = x.square % n
if (x.isOne) return false
if (x == nPrev) {
next = true
break
}
d = d - 1
}
if (!next) return false
}
}
}
return true
}
 
// Private constructor which creates a ULong object from low and high components.
construct lohi_(low, high) {
_lo = low
_hi = high
}
 
// Private constructor which creates a ULong object from a 'small' integer.
construct fromSmall_(v) {
var p = 4294967296 // 2 ^ 32
_lo = (v % p)
_hi = (v / p).floor
}
 
// Private method which creates a ULong object from a Num.
// If 'v' is not small, will probably lose accuracy.
static fromNum_(v) {
if (v < 0 || v.isNan) return ULong.zero
var m = 4294967296 // 2 ^ 32
if (v >= 2.pow(64)) return ULong.lohi_(m - 1, m - 1)
return ULong.lohi_(v % m, (v / m).floor)
}
 
// Private method which creates a ULong object from a base 10 numeric string.
// Scientific notation is permitted.
// Raises an error if the result is out of bounds.
static fromString_(v) {
v = v.trim()
if (v.count == 0 || v[0] == "-") Fiber.abort("Invalid unsigned integer.")
if (v[0] == "+") {
v = v[1..-1]
if (v.count == 0) Fiber.abort("Invalid unsigned integer.")
}
v = v.trimStart("0")
if (v == "") v = "0"
v = ULong.lower_(v)
var split = v.split("e")
if (split.count > 2) Fiber.abort("Invalid unsigned integer.")
if (split.count == 2) {
var exp = split[1]
if (exp[0] == "+") exp = exp[1..-1]
exp = Num.fromString(exp)
if (!ULong.isSmall_(exp)) Fiber.abort("Exponent is not valid.")
var text = split[0]
var dp = text.indexOf(".")
if (dp >= 0) {
exp = exp - (text.count - dp - 1)
text = text[0...dp] + text[dp+1..-1]
}
if (exp < 0) Fiber.abort("Exponent cannot be negative.")
text = text + ("0" * exp)
v = text
}
var len = v.count
var isValid = len > 0 && v.all { |d| "0123456789".contains(d) }
if (!isValid) Fiber.abort("Invalid unsigned integer.")
if (len > 20 || (len == 20 && ULong.exceedsMaxString_(v))) {
Fiber.abort("Integer is too big.")
}
if (len <= 16) {
var n = Num.fromString(v)
if (ULong.isSmall_(n)) return ULong.fromSmall_(n)
}
// process in 10 digit chunks
var r = ULong.zero
var pow10 = ULong.fromSmall_(10.pow(10))
var i = 0
while (i < len) {
var chunkSize = ((len - i) < 10) ? len - i : 10
var chunk = Num.fromString(v[i...i + chunkSize])
if (chunkSize < 10) {
var psize = ULong.fromSmall_(10.pow(chunkSize))
r = r * psize + ULong.fromSmall_(chunk)
} else {
r = r * pow10 + ULong.fromSmall_(chunk)
}
i = i + 10
}
return r
}
 
// Creates a ULong object from an (unprefixed) numeric string in a given base (2 to 36).
// Scientific notation is not permitted.
// Wraps out of range values.
static fromBaseString(v, base) {
if (!(v is String)) Fiber.abort("Value must be a numeric string in the given base.")
if (!((base is Num) && base.isInteger && base >= 2 && base <= 36)) {
Fiber.abort("Base must be an integer between 2 and 36.")
}
v = v.trim()
if (v.count == 0 || v[0] == "-") Fiber.abort("Invalid unsigned integer.")
if (v[0] == "+") {
v = v[1..-1]
if (v.count == 0) Fiber.abort("Invalid unsigned integer.")
}
v = v.trimStart("0")
if (v == "") v = "0"
if (base > 10) v = ULong.lower_(v)
var alphabet = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
var digits = alphabet[0...base]
var len = v.count
var isValid = len > 0 && v.all { |d| digits.contains(d) }
if (!isValid) Fiber.abort("Invalid unsigned integer.")
// process in 10 digit chunks
var r = ULong.zero
var powb = ULong.fromSmall_(base.pow(10))
var i = 0
while (i < len) {
var chunkSize = ((len - i) < 10) ? len - i : 10
var chunk = ULong.atoi_(v[i...i + chunkSize], base, digits)
if (chunkSize < 10) {
var psize = ULong.fromSmall_(base.pow(chunkSize))
r = r * psize + ULong.fromSmall_(chunk)
} else {
r = r * powb + ULong.fromSmall_(chunk)
}
i = i + 10
}
return r
}
 
// Creates a ULong object from either a numeric base 10 string or an unsigned 'small' integer.
static new(value) {
if (!(value is String) && !isSmall_(value)) {
Fiber.abort("Value must be a base 10 numeric string or an unsigned small integer.")
}
return (value is String) ? fromString_(value) : fromSmall_(value)
}
 
// Creates a ULong object from an (unprefixed) hexadecimal string. Wraps out of range values.
static fromHexString(v) { fromBaseString(v, 16) }
 
// Creates a ULong object from a pair (low and high) of unsigned 'short' integers.
static fromPair(low, high) {
if (!isShort_(low) || !isShort_(high)) {
Fiber.abort("Low and high components must both be unsigned 32-bit integers.")
}
return lohi_(low, high)
}
 
// Creates a ULong object from a list of 8 unsigned bytes in little-endian format.
static fromBytes(bytes) {
if (bytes.count != 8) Fiber.abort("There must be exactly 8 bytes in the list.")
for (b in bytes) {
if (!(b is Num && b.isInteger && b >= 0 && b < 256)) {
Fiber.abort("Each byte must be an integer between 0 and 255.")
}
}
var low = bytes[0] | bytes[1] << 8 | bytes[2] << 16 | bytes[3] << 24
var high = bytes[4] | bytes[5] << 8 | bytes[6] << 16 | bytes[7] << 24
return lohi_(low, high)
}
 
// Properties to return the low and high 32-bit portions of this instance.
low { _lo }
high { _hi }
 
// Public self-evident properties.
isShort { _hi == 0 }
isSmall { _hi <= 2097151 }
isEven { _lo % 2 == 0 }
isOdd { _lo % 2 == 1 }
isOne { _lo == 1 && _hi == 0 }
isZero { _lo == 0 && _hi == 0 }
 
// Returns true if 'n' is a divisor of the current instance, false otherwise
isDivisibleBy(n) { (this % n).isZero }
 
// Returns true if the current instance is prime, false otherwise.
// Fails due to overflow on numbers > 9223372036854775807 unless divisible by 2,3 or 5.
isPrime {
var isbp = ULong.isBasicPrime_(this)
if (isbp != null) return isbp
if (this > ULong.largest/2) Fiber.abort("Cannot test %(this) for primality.")
return ULong.millerRabinTest_(this, [2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37])
}
 
// Private method to calculate the index of this instance's most significant bit (0 to 63).
msb_ {
if (_hi == 0) return (_lo > 0) ? ULong.log2_(_lo).floor : 0
return ULong.log2_(_hi).floor + 32
}
 
// Returns the bitwise complement of the current instance.
~ { ULong.lohi_(~_lo, ~_hi) }
 
// Adds a ULong to the current instance. Wraps on overflow.
+ (n) {
if (!(n is ULong)) n = ULong.new(n)
if (this.isZero) return n.copy()
if (n.isZero) return this.copy()
var low = _lo + n.low
var high = _hi + n.high
var m = 4294967296 // 2^32
if (low >= m) {
low = low - m
high = high + 1
}
if (high >= m) {
high = high - m
}
return ULong.lohi_(low, high)
}
 
// Subtracts a ULong from the current instance. Wraps on underflow.
- (n) {
if (!(n is ULong)) n = ULong.new(n)
if (n.isZero) return this.copy()
return this + (~n) + ULong.one
}
 
// Multiplies the current instance by a ULong. Wraps on overflow.
* (n) {
if (!(n is ULong)) n = ULong.new(n)
if (this.isZero || n.isZero) return ULong.zero
// if the sum of the msbs for both ULongs is less than 51 use Num multiplication
if (this.msb_ + n.msb_ < 51) return ULong.fromSmall_(this.toNum * n.toNum)
// otherwise split the operands into 16 bit pieces to do the multiplication
var a3 = _hi >> 16
var a2 = _hi & 0xffff
var a1 = _lo >> 16
var a0 = _lo & 0xffff
 
var b3 = n.high >> 16
var b2 = n.high & 0xffff
var b1 = n.low >> 16
var b0 = n.low & 0xffff
 
var c0 = a0 * b0
var c1 = (c0 >> 16) + a1 * b0
c0 = c0 & 0xffff
var c2 = c1 >> 16
c1 = (c1 & 0xffff) + a0 * b1
c2 = c2 + (c1 >> 16) + a2 * b0
c1 = c1 & 0xffff
var c3 = c2 >> 16
c2 = (c2 & 0xffff) + a1 * b1
c3 = c3 + (c2 >> 16)
c2 = (c2 & 0xffff) + a0 * b2
c3 = c3 + (c2 >> 16)
c2 = c2 & 0xffff
c3 = (c3 + a3 * b0 + a2 * b1 + a1 * b2 + a0 * b3) & 0xffff
 
return ULong.lohi_((c1 << 16) | c0, (c3 << 16) | c2)
}
 
// Returns a list containing the quotient and the remainder after dividing
// the current instance by a ULong.
divMod(n) {
if (!(n is ULong)) n = ULong.new(n)
if (n.isZero) Fiber.abort("Cannot divide by zero.")
// if both operands are 'small' use Num division.
if (this.isSmall && n.isSmall) {
var a = this.toNum
var b = n.toNum
return [ULong.fromSmall_((a/b).floor), ULong.fromSmall_(a%b)]
}
if (this.isZero) return [ULong.zero, ULong.zero]
if (n.isOne) return [this.copy(), ULong.zero]
if (n > this) return [ULong.zero, this.copy()]
// use Num division to estimate the answer and refine it until the exact answer is found.
var div = ULong.zero
var rem = this.copy()
// iterate until the remainder is less than the divisor
while (rem >= n) {
var est = (rem.toNum / n.toNum).floor
if (est < 1) est = 1 // must be at least 1
var emsb = ULong.log2_(est).ceil
// calculate an adjustment to use based on the size of the estimate
var adj = (emsb <= 53) ? 1 : 1 << (emsb-53)
var div2 = ULong.fromNum_(est)
var rem2 = div2 * n
var rem3 = rem2 - div2 // to check whether rem2 has overflowed
// reduce the estimated remainder until it is no greater than the actual remainder
while (rem2 > rem || rem3 >= rem2) {
est = est - adj
div2 = ULong.fromNum_(est)
rem2 = div2 * n
rem3 = rem2 - div2
}
if (div2.isZero) div2 = ULong.one // must be at least one
div = div + div2
rem = rem - rem2
}
return [div, rem]
}
 
// Divides the current instance by a ULong.
/ (n) { divMod(n)[0] }
 
// Returns the remainder after dividing the current instance by a ULong.
% (n) { divMod(n)[1] }
 
//Returns the bitwise 'and' of the current instance and another ULong.
& (n) {
if (!(n is ULong)) n = ULong.new(n)
return ULong.lohi_(_lo & n.low, _hi & n.high)
}
 
// Returns the bitwise 'or' of the current instance and another ULong.
| (n) {
if (!(n is ULong)) n = ULong.new(n)
return ULong.lohi_(_lo | n.low, _hi | n.high)
}
 
// Returns the bitwise 'xor' of the current instance and another ULong.
^ (n) {
if (!(n is ULong)) n = ULong.new(n)
return ULong.lohi_(_lo ^ n.low, _hi ^ n.high)
}
 
// Shifts the bits of the current instance 'n' places to the left. Wraps modulo 64.
// Negative shifts are allowed.
<< (n) {
if (n is ULong) n = n.toNum
n = n & 63
if (n == 0) return this.copy()
if (n < 32) {
return ULong.lohi_(_lo << n, (_hi << n) | (_lo >> (32 - n)))
}
return ULong.lohi_(0, _lo << (n - 32))
}
 
// Shifts the bits of the current instance 'n' places to the right. Wraps modulo 64.
// Negative shifts are allowed.
>> (n) {
if (n is ULong) n = n.toNum
n = n & 63
if (n == 0) return this.copy()
if (n < 32) {
return ULong.lohi_(_lo >> n | (_hi << (32 - n)), _hi >> n)
}
return ULong.lohi_(_hi >> (n - 32), 0)
}
 
// The inherited 'clone' method just returns 'this' as ULong objects are immutable.
// If you need an actual copy use this method instead.
copy() { ULong.lohi_(_lo, _hi) }
 
// Compares the current instance with a ULong. If they are equal returns 0.
// If 'this' is greater, returns 1. Otherwise returns -1.
// Also allows a comparison with positive infinity.
compare(n) {
if ((n is Num) && n.isInfinity && n > 0) return -1
if (!(n is ULong)) n = ULong.new(n)
if (_hi == n.high && _lo == n.low) return 0
if (_hi > n.high) return 1
if (_hi < n.high) return -1
return (_lo < n.low) ? -1 : 1
}
 
// Returns the greater of this instance and another ULong instance.
max(n) { ULong.max(this, n) }
 
// Returns the smaller of this instance and another ULong instance.
min(n) { ULong.min(this, n) }
 
// Clamps this instance into the range [a, b].
// If this instance is less than min, min is returned.
// If it's more than max, max is returned. Otherwise, this instance is returned.
clamp(a, b) {
if (!(a is ULong)) a = ULong.new(a)
if (!(b is ULong)) b = ULong.new(b)
if (a > b) Fiber.abort("Range cannot be decreasing.")
if (this < a) return a
if (this > b) return b
return this.copy()
}
 
// Squares the current instance. Wraps on overflow.
square { this * this }
 
// Cubes the current instance. Wraps on overflow.
cube { this * this * this }
 
// Returns true if the current instance is a perfect square, false otherwise.
isSquare {
var root = isqrt
return root.square == this
}
 
// Returns true if the current instance is a perfect cube, false otherwise.
isCube {
var root = icbrt
return root.cube == this
}
 
// Returns the integer n'th root of the current instance
// i.e. the precise n'th root truncated towards zero if not an integer.
iroot(n) {
if (!((n is Num) && n.isInteger && n > 0)) {
Fiber.abort("Argument must be a positive integer.")
}
if (n == 1) return this
var t = copy()
n = n - 1
var s = t + 1
var u = t
while (u < s) {
s = u
u = ((u * n) + t / u.pow(n)) / (n + 1)
}
return s
}
 
// Returns the integer cube root of the current instance i.e. the largest integer 'x0'
// such that x0.cube <= this.
icbrt {
if (isSmall) return ULong.fromSmall_(toNum.cbrt.floor)
return iroot(3)
}
 
// Returns the integer square root of the current instance i.e. the largest integer 'x0'
// such that x0.square <= this.
isqrt {
if (isSmall) return ULong.fromSmall_(toNum.sqrt.floor)
// otherwise use Newton's method
var x0 = this >> 1
var x1 = (x0 + this/x0) >> 1
while (x1 < x0) {
x0 = x1
x1 = (x0 + this/x0) >> 1
}
return x0
}
 
// Returns the current instance raised to the power of a 'small' ULong. Wraps on overflow.
// If the exponent is less than 0, returns 0. O.pow(0) returns one.
pow(n) {
if (!(n is ULong)) n = ULong.new(n)
if (n.isZero) return ULong.one
if (n.isOne) return this.copy()
if (this.isZero) return ULong.zero
if (this.isOne) return ULong.one
if (!n.isSmall) Fiber.abort("The exponent %(n) is too large.")
if (this.isSmall) {
var value = this.toNum.pow(n.toNum)
if (ULong.isSmall_(value)) return ULong.fromSmall_(value)
}
var x = this
var y = ULong.one
var z = n
while (true) {
if (z.isOdd) {
y = y * x
z = z - 1
}
if (z.isZero) break
z = z >> 1
x = x.square
}
return y
}
 
// Returns the current instance multiplied by 'n' modulo 'mod'.
modMul(n, mod) {
var x = ULong.zero
var y = this
while (n > ULong.zero) {
if ((n & 1) == 1) x = (x + y) % mod
y = (y << 1) % mod
n = n >> 1
}
return x
}
 
// Returns the current instance to the power 'exp' modulo 'mod'.
modPow(exp, mod) {
if (!(exp is ULong)) exp = ULong.new(exp)
if (!(mod is ULong)) mod = ULong.new(mod)
if (mod.isZero) Fiber.abort("Cannot take modPow with modulus 0.")
var r = ULong.one
var base = this % mod
while (!exp.isZero) {
if (base.isZero) return ULong.zero
if (exp.isOdd) r = r.modMul(base, mod)
exp = exp >> 1
base = base.modMul(base, mod)
}
return r
}
 
// Increments the current instance by one.
inc { this + ULong.one }
 
// Decrements the current instance by one.
dec { this - ULong.one }
 
// Returns 0 if the current instance is zero or 1 otherwise.
sign { isZero ? 0 : 1 }
 
// Returns the number of digits required to represent the current instance in binary.
bitLength { msb_ + 1 }
 
// Returns true if the 'n'th bit of the current instance is set or false otherwise.
testBit(n) {
if (n.type != Num || !n.isInteger || n < 0 || n > 63) {
Fiber.abort("Argument must be a non-negative integer less than 64.")
}
return (this >> n) & ULong.one != ULong.zero
}
 
// Converts the current instance to a Num where possible.
// Will probably lose accuracy if the current instance is not 'small'.
toNum { _hi * 4294967296 + _lo }
 
// Converts the current instance to a 'small' integer where possible.
// Otherwise returns null.
toSmall { isSmall ? toNum : null }
 
// Expresses the current instance as a pair of 'short' integers, low and high.
toPair { [_lo, _hi] }
 
// Expresses the current instance as a list of 8 unsigned bytes in little-endian format.
toBytes {
return [_lo & 0xff, _lo >> 8 & 0xff, _lo >> 16 & 0xff, _lo >> 24 ,
_hi & 0xff, _hi >> 8 & 0xff, _hi >> 16 & 0xff, _hi >> 24]
}
 
// Private worker method for toBaseString, toHexString and toString.
toBaseString_(base) {
if (isZero) return "0"
// process in 6 digit chunks
var pow6 = ULong.fromSmall_(base.pow(6))
var alphabet = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
var rem = this
var res = ""
while (true) {
var div = rem / pow6
var val = (rem - div * pow6).toNum >> 0
var digits = ULong.itoa_(val, base, alphabet[0...base])
rem = div
if (rem.isZero) return digits + res
if (digits.count < 6) digits = "0" * (6 - digits.count) + digits
res = digits + res
}
}
 
// Returns the string representation of the current instance in a given base (2 to 36).
toBaseString(base) {
if (!((base is Num) && base.isInteger && base >= 2 && base <= 36)) {
Fiber.abort("Base must be an integer between 2 and 36.")
}
return toBaseString_(base)
}
 
// Returns the string representation of the current instance in base 16.
toHexString { toBaseString_(16) }
 
// Returns the string representation of the current instance in base 10.
toString { toBaseString_(10) }
 
/* Prime factorization methods. */
 
// Private worker method for Pollard's Rho algorithm.
static pollardRho_(m, seed, c) {
var g = Fn.new { |x| (x*x + c) % m }
var x = ULong.new(seed)
var y = ULong.new(seed)
var z = ULong.one
var d = ULong.one
var count = 0
while (true) {
x = g.call(x)
y = g.call(g.call(y))
d = (x >= y) ? (x - y) % m : (y - x) % m
z = z * d
count = count + 1
if (count == 100) {
d = ULong.gcd(z, m)
if (d != ULong.one) break
z = ULong.one
count = 0
}
}
if (d == m) return ULong.zero
return d
}
 
// Returns a factor (ULong) of 'm' (a ULong or an unsigned 'small' integer) using the
// Pollard's Rho algorithm. Both the 'seed' and 'c' can be set to integers.
// Returns ULong.zero in the event of failure.
static pollardRho(m, seed, c) {
if (m < 2) return ULong.zero
if (m is Num) m = ULong.new(m)
if (m.isPrime) return m.copy()
if (m.isSquare) return m.isqrt
for (p in [2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31]) {
if (m.isDivisibleBy(p)) return ULong.new(p)
}
return pollardRho_(m, seed, c)
}
 
// Convenience version of the above method which uses a seed of 2 and a value for c of 1.
static pollardRho(m) { pollardRho(m, 2, 1) }
 
// Private method for factorizing smaller numbers (ULong) using a wheel with basis [2, 3, 5].
static primeFactorsWheel_(m) {
var n = m.copy()
var inc = [4, 2, 4, 2, 4, 6, 2, 6]
var factors = []
var k = ULong.new(37)
var i = 0
while (k * k <= n) {
if (n.isDivisibleBy(k)) {
factors.add(k.copy())
n = n / k
} else {
k = k + inc[i]
i = (i + 1) % 8
}
}
if (n > ULong.one) factors.add(n)
return factors
}
 
// Private worker method (recursive) to obtain the prime factors of a number (ULong).
static primeFactors_(m, trialDivs) {
if (m.isPrime) return [m.copy()]
var n = m.copy()
var factors = []
var seed = 2
var c = 1
var checkPrime = true
var threshold = 1e11 // from which using PR may be advantageous
if (trialDivs) {
for (p in [2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31]) {
while (n.isDivisibleBy(p)) {
factors.add(ULong.new(p))
n = n / p
}
}
}
while (n > ULong.one) {
if (checkPrime && n.isPrime) {
factors.add(n)
break
}
if (n >= threshold) {
var d = pollardRho_(n, seed, c)
if (d != ULong.zero) {
factors.addAll(primeFactors_(d, false))
n = n / d
checkPrime = true
} else if (c == 1) {
if (n.isSquare) {
n = n.isqrt
var pf = primeFactors_(n, false)
factors.addAll(pf)
factors.addAll(pf)
break
} else {
c = 2
checkPrime = false
}
} else if (c < 101) {
c = c + 1
} else if (seed < 101) {
seed = seed + 1
} else {
factors.addAll(primeFactorsWheel_(n))
break
}
} else {
factors.addAll(primeFactorsWheel_(n))
break
}
}
factors.sort()
return factors
}
 
// Returns a list of the primes factors (ULong) of 'm' (a ULong or an unsigned small integer)
// using the wheel based factorization and/or Pollard's Rho algorithm as appropriate.
static primeFactors(m) {
if (m < 2) return []
if (m is Num) m = ULong.new(m)
return primeFactors_(m, true)
}
}
 
/* ULongs contains various routines applicable to lists of unsigned 64-bit integers. */
class ULongs {
static sum(a) { a.reduce(ULong.zero) { |acc, x| acc + x } }
static mean(a) { sum(a)/a.count }
static prod(a) { a.reduce(ULong.one) { |acc, x| acc * x } }
static max(a) { a.reduce { |acc, x| (x > acc) ? x : acc } }
static min(a) { a.reduce { |acc, x| (x < acc) ? x : acc } }
}
 
// Type aliases for classes in case of any name clashes with other modules.
var Long_ULong = ULong
var Long_ULongs = ULongs
var Long_Comparable = Comparable // in case imported indirectly